Treatment of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder.
Seventeen patients with MRSA infection were identified, 12 (71%) of whom were HIV-positive. The most common clinical presentation was abscess (35%), followed by furuncle (17%), folliculitis (17%), cellulitis (17%) and sinusitis (12%). The majority of MRSA isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (92%) and levofloxacin (77%). All isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, rifampin, linezolid, gentamicin and clindamycin, while the majority were susceptible to tetracycline (80%). All six isolates tested were SCCmec type IVa-positive and Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive, and had fingerprint patterns consistent with the CMRSA-10 (USA300) clone.
Literature was identified by a MEDLINE search from January 1985 to September 1997. Abstracts and presentations were identified by review of program abstracts from the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy from 1988 to 1996.
Seven hundred thirty-three patients were enrolled in the study (368 in the moxifloxacin arm and 365 in the comparator arm); 49% had a PSI of IV, and 10% had a PSI of V. Of 569 patients (291 in the moxifloxacin arm and 278 in the comparator arm) valid for per-protocol analysis, the overall clinical cure rates at test of cure were 86.9% for moxifloxacin and 89.9% for the comparator regimen (95% confidence interval, -8.1% to 2.2%). Bacteriological success at test of cure was 83.3% for moxifloxacin and 85.1% for the comparator regimen (95% confidence interval, -15.4% to 11.8%). There were no significant differences between moxifloxacin and comparator treatments in the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events or in mortality.
The one-year intervention program on outpatient antibacterial use during the journey to JCI accreditation reduced the expenditure on antibacterials, improved the appropriateness of antibacterial prescriptions. Quality improvements need integrated multifaceted intervention measures and long-term adherence to the antibiotic stewardship. Approach of i.v. to oral antibacterial switch, classification management, and motivational measures may play the most efficient role in changing antibacterial prescription practices.
47 venomous snakes of the families Colubridae, Elapidae and Viperidae and 53 non-medically important snakes were captured. 406 bacterial isolates of 72 different species were cultured: these included gram negative and positive bacterial species and also anaerobic bacterial species. With the exception of the white-lipped pit viper (Cryptelytrops albolabris), venomous snakes harboured more pathogenic bacteria and total bacteria species compared to the non-medically important species. Of the venomous snakes, the Chinese cobra (Naja atra) harboured the largest number of bacterial species. In the present study, all gram negative bacteria associated with wound infection were sensitive to levofloxacin, netilmicin and piperacillin/tazobactam. Many gram negative bacteria in the study were not sensitive to cefuroxime axetil. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was an appropriate choice to cover Enterococcus faecalis and anaerobes.
Although rare, CNS toxicities such as orofacial dyskinesia have been reported with levofloxacin. Patients on fluoroquinolones of advanced age and with renal insufficiency should be monitored closely for such toxicities.
To determine the prophylactic effect of antibiotics administration in the prevention of infection following an ultrasound-guided percutaneous liver biopsy or treatment of liver tumors, we performed an open-labeled randomized prospective study of patients who received prophylactic antibiotics after undergoing those procedures.
We distributed questionnaires to assess isolation rates of P. aeruginosa with and without drug resistance at medical facilities and clinical laboratories throughout Japan during the period January 2003 through June 2006. Completed questionnaires were obtained from 339 medical facilities and 4 clinical laboratories.
We studied the effect of diverse generations of topical fluoroquinolones such as ofloxacin 0.3%, levofloxacin 0.5%, tosufloxacin 0.3%, moxifloxacin 0.5% and gatifloxacin 0.3% on cultured human corneal epithelial cells. MTT-based calorimetric assay, lactate dehydrogenase leakage (LDH) assay and scratch wound test were performed. Corneal epithelial cell morphologies were examined by performing inverted light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.
According to intention-to-treat analysis, the infection was eradicated in 38 of 56 patients (67.9%) in the LML group and 48 of 57 (84.2%) in the quadruple group (p=0.042). Per-protocol analysis showed successful eradication in 38 of 52 patients (73.1%) from the LML group and 48 of 52 (92.3%) from the quadruple group (p=0.010). There were no significant differences in the adverse effects in either treatment group.
Transport on the brush-border membrane plays a determining step in the renal secretion of levofloxacin, and cimetidine and quinolones interact with levofloxacin transport on the brush-border membrane.