High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

The use of moxifloxacin for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic bronchitis.


Cardiovascular risk factors, ADMA and E-selectin were assessed in 45 patients with erectile dysfunction. Plasma markers showed associations with baseline risk factors. E-selectin levels showed an inverse relationship with age (p = 0.005) and statin therapy (p = 0.03) and a weak association with concomitant beta-blocker therapy (p = 0.05). Compared to these relatively weak associations with cardiovascular risk factors, ADMA levels showed strong associations with pulse pressure (p < 0.001), lack of smoking (p = 0.002) and lipoprotein (a) (p = 0.004) concentrations and weak associations with LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.02), and C-reactive protein levels (p = 0.04). ADMA levels correlated with E-selectin (partial r = 0.76; p < 0.001) after adjustment for lipoprotein (a), pulse pressure and smoking. No change in E-selectin or ADMA levels was seen after 70 days therapy with sildenafil and no relationship was found between either plasma marker and the acute pulse wave response to a single challenge dose of sildenafil.

Maternal blood pressure, blood viscosity, vascular indices of uterine arteries and fetal ductus venosus, plasmatic levels of sildenafil, embryo/fetal and litter weights, perinatal/postnatal survival rates.

In October 1998, the IIEF-5 was mailed to all surviving members of an established community-based cohort of older men. The degree of ED was stratified by the erectile function domain score as complete (4 or less), severe (5 to 10), moderate (11 to 14), mild (15 to 18), or none (19 to 20). Men were also asked about sildenafil use and its effectiveness.

Sildenafil is one of the selective phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors that has been proven by many investigators to suppress growth factor stimulated (e.g. platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) or epidermal growth factor (EGF)) proliferation and hypertrophy of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) via cGMP/cGKIa pathway. Serotonin promotes cell cycle progression leading to cell mitogenesis and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary artery hypertension. The role of sildenafil in proliferation of PASMCs induced by serotonin has not been investigated so far. In this study we explored the underlying mechanism of the effect of sildenafil on serotonin induced proliferation of porcine PASMCs.

This study is to clarify whether sildenafil, which is a selective inhibitor of the isoform 5 of the enzyme phosphodiesterase, improves macrocirculation or/and microcirculation during ventricular fibrillation (VF) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) so as to improve outcomes of resuscitation.

Nightly PDE5-inhibitor treatment 1 year in a dosage determined by NPTR measurements results in better EF than giving a fixed dosage of sildenafil (25 mg) or vardenafil (5 mg). This improvement persisted for >4 weeks beyond the end of treatment. The results from this open-label, randomized trial warrant verification under double-blind, placebo-controlled conditions.

The search on the World Wide Web (Web) was performed using the search engine HotBot and search directory Yahoo. The Web pages were assessed according to their relevancy to the topic chosen. Relevance rates were derived from the number of relevant sites divided by the total number of sites found. Relevant sites were subsequently ranked for quality on the basis of their accuracy, comprehensiveness, and objectivity. HotBot was then subsequently divided by domain, with each assessed separately. Yahoo was analyzed in its entirety. The resources were then compared for relevance and quality of information.

We demonstrated that daily sildenafil administration can restore the impaired VEGF system in the penis of DMED rats and progressively improve both erectile function and endothelial function, suggesting a potential general mechanism of improved signaling through the VEGF/eNOS signaling cascade.

To assess the efficacy and safety of oral sildenafil citrate in the treatment of erectile dysfunction in men with diabetes.

To conduct an epidemiologic review of sildenafil in homosexual and bisexual males focusing on concurrent use with club drugs and/or antiretroviral medications.

Despite the initial enthusiasm, the significant number of patients in whom sildenafil is contraindicated or ineffective is a major challenge to all urologists. Our aim was to determine the safety and efficacy of adjunctive atorvastatin in restoring normal erectile function in hypercholesterolemic (low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol >120 mg per 100 ml) sildenafil nonresponders. The study comprised 131 men with ED not responding to sildenafil citrate. They were randomized either to 40 mg atorvastatin daily (n=66, group 1) or matching placebo (n=65, group 2) for 12 weeks while they were taking on-demand 100 mg sildenafil. Erectile function was subjectively assessed using the 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaire and response to the global efficacy question (GEQ). Serum biochemical and lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) analyses were performed at baseline and repeated at post-treatment weeks 6 and 12. Compared with the placebo group (59 patients, mean age+/-s.d. 61.9+/-6.1, mean years ED 3.9+/-1.8), the atorvastatin group (59 patients, mean age+/-s.d. 63.9+/-6.9, mean years ED 3.7+/-1.6) had significantly greater improvements in all IIEF-5 questions (P=0.01) and GEQ (P=0.001). Subgroup analyses did reveal trends in the atorvastatin group to indicate that a change in the IIEF-5 score is affected by age, severity of ED and baseline serum levels of LDL. Patients with moderate (r=0.28, P=0.01) and severe (r=0.20, P=0.01) ED had better positive response rates to adjunctive atorvastatin than patients with mild to moderate ED. None of the patients taking atorvastatin achieved a response of 5 to the IIEF-5 questions and none of the patients regained normal erectile function as defined by the IIEF-5 score >21. Subjects experienced a statistically significant but modest improvement in erectile function. Further investigation is needed to test the usefulness of long-term atorvastatin administration to restore erectile function in sildenafil nonresponders.