High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

The medical treatment of the hypersecreting pituitary gland.


Tenoxicam was associated with lower pain scores at the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 24th hour postoperatively. Total morphine consumption was 44.8 +/- 17.4 mg, 64.6 +/- 19.6 mg, 69.2 +/- 22.1 (tenoxicam, paracetamol and placebo group, respectively) and there was a significant difference in the tenoxicam group compared with the other two groups (p < 0.05). Side-effects except for nausea were similar.

This study examined the electrophysiological responses to antigen and to various stimuli in jejunal mucosa from rats sensitized to egg albumin with alum and pertussis adjuvants. Luminal antigen caused an immediate increase in short-circuit current, a measure of net ion transport, which was one of three different patterns. All were inhibited by the chloride channel blocker diphenyl-2-carboxylate, by chloride-free buffer, and by doxantrazole, a mast cell stabilizer. Depending on the pattern, the histamine-1 antagonist diphenhydramine, the 5-hydroxytryptamine-2 antagonist ketanserin, and the cyclooxygenase inhibitor piroxicam also reduced the responses. A neural component was indicated by inhibition of the responses to luminal antigen by the neurotoxin tetrodotoxin and by neonatal capsaicin treatment, which depletes substance P-containing nerves. In the absence of antigen, histamine and substance P caused increases in short-circuit current; the magnitude of these changes was significantly greater in tissues from sensitized animals than in controls. These data suggest that sensitization itself may result in hypersecretory responses to some inflammatory mediator and neurotransmitter substances.

To investigate the use of traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (tNSAIDs) in the management of osteoarthritis (OA) in primary care in Spain and to quantify patient and physician satisfaction with tNSAID therapy.

Stimulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) increases the expression of CXCR4 on endothelial cells, rendering these cells more responsive to stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), an angiogenic CXC chemokine and unique ligand for CXCR4. Here, we show that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) mediates the effects of bFGF and VEGF in up-regulating CXCR4 expression on human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs). Forskolin or 3-isobutyl-1-methyl xanthine (IBMX), 2 inducers of adenylate cyclase, markedly enhanced, whereas cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors including aspirin, piroxicam, and NS398 markedly inhibited CXCR4 expression on HMECs. Furthermore, the ability of PGE2 to augment in vitro tubular formation in SDF-1alpha containing matrigel was inhibited completely by blocking CXCR4. Treatment of bFGF- or VEGF-stimulated HMECs with COX inhibitors blocked tubular formation by about 50% to 70%. Prostaglandin-induced human endothelial cell organization and subsequent vascularization can be inhibited to a greater extent by a neutralizing antibody to human CXCR4 in severe combined immunodeficient mice. Additionally, VEGF- and bFGF-induced angiogenesis in vivo was also inhibited by about 50% by NS-398 or piroxicam, and this inhibitory effect was accompanied by decreased expression of CXCR4 on murine endothelial cells. Consequently, by inducing CXCR4 expression, prostaglandin accounts for about 50% of the tubular formation in vitro and in vivo angiogenic effects of VEGF and bFGF. Moreover, augmentation of CXCR4 expression by VEGF, bFGF, and PGE2 involves stimulation of transcription factors binding to the Sp1-binding sites within the promoter region of the CXCR4 gene. These findings indicate that PGE2 is a mediator of VEGF- and bFGF-induced CXCR4-dependent neovessel assembly in vivo and show that angiogenic effects of PGE2 require CXCR4 expression.

The obtained results ratify that S-sSNEDDS is a promising drug delivery system to enhance the oral bioavailability of piroxicam.

18,888 patients with chronic or extra-articular rheumatic diseases were treated for an average period of 36.1 or 26.9 days with the new non-steroidal anti-rheumatic agent piroxicam. In particular, piroxicam had a positive effect in terms of providing relief from pain. Side effects were relatively rare and seldom required discontinuation of treatment. In about 75% of the patients the maintenance dose was 20 mg piroxicam in a single daily dose. No influence on the laboratory values or accompanying diseases were observed.

Large intestinal ulcers, bleeding and perforation are occasionally due to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). In addition to suppression of prostaglandins synthesis, a number of factors have been implicated, including enterohepatic recirculation, food intake and vascular injury with oxygen free-radical generation. The present study aimed to determine the effect of food intake and the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of intestinal injury induced by oral administration of meloxicam (preferential cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor) vs. piroxicam (preferential cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitor). Therefore, the activity of oxidative stress-related enzymes such as myeloperoxidase, xanthine oxidase and superoxide dismutase, as well as levels of lipid peroxides and glutathione homeostasis were studied in an experimental model using re-fed rats. The animals treated with piroxicam (10-20 mg/kg) had a dose-dependent increase in the severity of intestinal lesions, but only the highest dose of meloxicam (15 mg/kg) caused macroscopic damage. The severity of piroxicam and meloxicam-induced damage was correlated with a significant increase of xantine oxidase activity and a decrease of superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels (P<0.05 and P<0.001 vs. control). In contrast, there was no significant neutrophil infiltration of the intestine after dosing. Our results support the hypothesis that oxygen free radicals, probably derived via the action of xantine oxidase, the decrease in superoxide dismutase activity, and depletion of mucosal glutathione contribute to the pathogenesis of meloxicam and piroxicam-induced intestinal ulceration in re-fed rats.