High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

The influence of potassium clavulanate on the rate of amoxicillin sodium degradation in phosphate and acetate buffers in the liquid state.


Resistance to erythromycin has been very uncommon among group A streptococci in the United States.

The ambulatory management of imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria is controversial because criteria for safe selection of patients are imprecise. The aim of the present study was to investigate the evolution and outcome of patients diagnosed with Plasmodium falciparum malaria at a Belgian referral institute in order to assess the safety of the institute's current selective ambulatory management protocol. From 2000 to 2005, all patients diagnosed with P. falciparum infection at the Institute of Tropical Medicine and the University Hospital of Antwerp were enrolled prospectively. Ambulatory treatment was offered to nonvomiting patients if they exhibited none of the 2000 World Health Organization criteria of severity and had parasitemia below 1% at the initial assessment. The treatment of choice was quinine (plus doxycycline or clindamycin) for inpatients and atovaquone-proguanil for outpatients. P. falciparum malaria was diagnosed in 387 patients, of whom 246 (64%) were Western travelers or expatriates and 117 (30%) were already on antimalarial therapy. At diagnosis, 60 (15%) patients had severe malaria. Vital organ dysfunction was initially seen in 34 and developed later in five others. Five patients died. Of the 327 patients initially assessed as having uncomplicated malaria, 113 (35%) were admitted immediately; of these, 4 developed parasitemia >/=5% at a later stage but without any clinical consequence. None of the 214 individuals initially treated as outpatients experienced any malaria-related complications, including 10 who were admitted later. Vital organ dysfunction was observed in only 2 of the 214 patients with initial parasitemia <1% who had not taken antimalarial agents (both patients had impaired consciousness at presentation). Ambulatory treatment is safe in treatment-naive malaria patients with parasitemia <1% who do not vomit and who do not exhibit any criteria of severe malaria.

The subset of women enrolled in a large longitudinal cohort study who had Chlamydia trachomatis (n = 13), bacterial vaginosis (n = 105), yeast vaginitis (n = 15), or mucopurulent cervicitis (n = 47) were compared with 93 women without genital infection from the same population. The effect of various treatment regimens on lactobacilli was evaluated.

Malarial diagnosis can be difficult in children because parasitemia is usually below 1%. A high index of suspicion is required in patients who have traveled to Africa.

This study has demonstrated that piperacillin/tazobactam is comparable with clindamycin plus gentamicin in efficacy, safety and tolerance in the treatment of surgical patients with intra-abdominal infections. The combination of piperacillin/tazobactam could potentially be the treatment of choice in adjunt to surgical management in intra-abdominal infection.

To investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular nature related to the resistance on macrolides from nasal Staphylococcus (S.) aureus isolates among healthy people.

In an attempt to restore the colonization resistance we administered anaerobic microflora to prevent an abnormal colonization of the intestine after antibiotic treatment had been discontinued. After the antibiotics had been discontinued and before the donor flora had been administered and had colonized the intestine, microorganisms present were "unopposed" and expanded to a high density. A mouse model was used to investigate which antibiotics negatively influenced the donor flora and reduced the colonization resistance when administered intraperitoneally. Erythromycin, clindamycin and carbenicillin suppressed the donor flora permanently, as could be seen by the reduced colonization resistance. Benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, doxycycline and the combination gentamicin-cephalothin affected the colonization resistance as long as these agents were present. Gentamicin alone and cephalothin and oxytetracycline had no effect on the colonization resistance.

Antimicrobial resistance among the Viridans group of streptococci (VGS) has emerged as a hindrance to effective antibiotic therapy. Our objective was to evaluate the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant VGS in healthy children. Plaque samples were collected from tooth and tongue surfaces of 102 healthy subjects. Serially diluted samples were inoculated onto BHI agar plates and Mitis Salivarius Agar (MSA) plates and incubated as appropriate. Representative colonies were identified to species level by standard methods. Susceptibility of the VGS was performed by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 11 antibiotics using Etest. Of the 540 VGS isolates from both sites, 58% were from the tooth surfaces and 42% from the tongue. The most prevalent were S. salivarius (21.5%) and S. sanguis (16.3%). Imipenem and vancomycin had excellent activities. Resistance rates to trimethoprim, amoxicillin, piperacillin, erythromycin, cefuroxime and cephalothin, were 60.7, 40.8, 34.7, 32.6, 27.5 and 25.3%, respectively. Resistance rates to penicillin and clindamycin were 15.9% and 15.4%, respectively. The majority of the erythromycin-resistant isolates were from the tongue; 41% versus 29%. At the species level, 26% and 23% of S. salivarius and 23% and 14% of S. mutans from the tooth and tongue, respectively were resistant to penicillin. The data show species-related and site-related variations in the susceptibility pattern and an emerging high prevalence of antibiotic-resistant VGS. The difference in the susceptibilities between the species underscores the importance of accurate-identification and the need for surveillance of antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates in our hospitals.