High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

The effect of pentoxifylline on reduction of proteinuria among patients with type 2 diabetes under blockade of angiotensin system: a double blind and randomized clinical trial.


In humans, pioglitazone provides potent protection against IR-induced endothelial dysfunction.

The mean baseline LBP score was 8.60 ± 1.50 (SD) despite the use of multi-modal analgesic regimens (NSAIDs, glucocorticosteroids, paracetamol, oral opioids, gabapentanoid compounds, epidural or periradicular steroid and/or local anesthetics) as well as laser treatments and physical therapy. The majority of patients reported that their pain intensity decreased by ~50% 1-2 min after the meloxicam injection was completed. Thirty-six patients (50%) required no further injections, 25 patients (35%) required a second injection after seven days, and 11 patients (15%) required a total of three injections. After the meloxicam treatment(s), only 10 patients (14%) required "rescue" analgesia with oral NSAIDs. All patients were able to increase their level of functional activity after the meloxicam treatment(s).

Our results indicate that members of the oxicam family are able to interfere with events of neutrophil function, such as their degranulation and cytokine-mediated activation changes in adhesion molecules, both in neutrophils and in lymphocytes. Such effects may significantly contribute to the antiinflammatory activity of these drugs.

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), members of the same family with a different cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition selectivity, meloxicam, preferent COX-2 inhibitor, and piroxicam, preferent COX-1 inhibitor, on oxygen radical generation in rat gastric mucosa. Therefore, the activity of oxidative stress-related enzymes such as xanthine oxidase (XO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) homeostasis were studied in rats. Gastric prostaglandins (PG) were also assessed as a measure of COX-1 inhibition. Both oxicams produced a similar extent of the gastric mucosal damage and a significant decrease in PGE2 synthesis, however only piroxicam induced an increase of both myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha content in the gastric mucosa, indicating that neutrophil-derived free radicals were involved in gastric injury. Furthermore, both compounds reduced SOD activity and increased XO activity in gastric mucosa. Our results also revealed modifications in GSH metabolism: although glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) activity was unaffected by meloxicam or piroxicam administration, both glutathione reductase (GSSG-rd) activity and total GSH content were significantly decreased after dosing. These results suggest that under our experimental conditions, meloxicam, preferential COX-2 inhibitor causes rates of gastric lesion in rats comparable to those seen with the traditional NSAID piroxicam, preferential COX-1 inhibitor. In addition to suppression of systemic COX activity, oxygen radicals, probably derived via the XO, and neutrophils play an important role in the production of damage induced by both oxicams. Moreover, the decrease in SOD activity and changes in glutathione homeostasis in gastric mucosa may also contribute to pathogenesis of meloxicam- or piroxicam-induced gastropathy.

Several preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors are efficient for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, two recent phase III clinical trials using COX-2 inhibitors in combination with platinum-based chemotherapy failed to demonstrate a survival benefit. Thus, validation and discussion regarding the usefulness of COX-2 inhibitors for patients with NSCLC are required. We conducted a prospective trial using COX-2 inhibitors for the treatment of 50 NSCLC patients accrued between April, 2005 and July, 2006. Patients with untreated advanced NSCLC received oral meloxicam (150 mg daily), carboplatin (area under the curve = 5 mg/ml × min on day 1) and docetaxel (60 mg/m(2) on day 1) every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was response rate. The response and disease control rates were 36.0 and 76.0%, respectively. The time-to-progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) were 5.7 months [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.6-6.7] and 13.7 months (95% CI: 11.4-15.9), respectively. The 1-year survival ratio was 56.0%. Grade 3 neuropathy was observed in only 1 patient. We performed tumor immunohistochemistry for COX-2 and p27 and investigated the correlation between their expression and clinical outcome. COX-2 expression in the tumor tended to correlate with a higher response rate (50.0% in the high- and 18.2% in the low-COX-2 group; P=0.092). Based on our results and previous reports, various trial designs, such as the prospective use of COX-2 inhibitors only for patients with COX-2-positive NSCLC, including the exploratory analysis of biomarkers associated with the COX-2 pathway, may be worth further consideration.

Male Sprague-Dawley (250-300 g) rats were anesthetized with ketamine (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]) and chlorpromazine (25 mg/kg, i.p.). Two bipolar Teflon-coated Ni/Cr wire electrodes (80-M diameter) were placed in the abdominal external oblique muscle for the recording of electromyography. Jugular vein catheter was placed for the administration of drugs. CRD method was applied to evaluate of visceral pain. All drugs (paracetamol, meloxicam, metamizole, and dexketoprofen) administered intravenously.