High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

The cost of large-scale school health programmes which deliver anthelmintics to children in Ghana and Tanzania. The Partnership for Child Development.


The percent of cells positive for PSCA mRNA by ISH labeling declined from 67.3% (0-89%)+/-9.4% before CAA to 33.8% (0-92%)+/-7.7% after CAA (P<0.001). Before CAA, 40 of 42 cases (95.2%) were positive for PSCA mRNA labeling, however, after CAA the percentage of positive reactivity of PSCA mRNA was decreased to 27 of 40 cases (67.5%), in which none was found with local recurrences or distant metastases after radical prostatectomy on follow-up. This decline in PSCA mRNA labeling was dependent on the original tumor grade with Gleason score of <or=6: 19.3%+/-4.7%, Gleason score of 7: 38.8%+/-7.2%, and a Gleason score of >or=8: 73.4%+/-13.8% (P<0.05, respectively). The rest 13 cases had the increased percentage of cells positive for PSCA mRNA after CAA, in which 3 cases were found with local recurrences and 4 cases with distant metastases from tumor on follow-up.

The definition of advanced prostate cancer has changed. Multimodal therapy improves cancer-specific outcomes especially in men with high-risk disease. The potential opportunities for novel therapeutic agents with low associated morbidity are great.

Cancer cells require massive amounts of amino acids for survival. LAT1 (L-type amino acid transporter 1) transports essential amino acids, including leucine, which trigger the downstream mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway. We examined the association between androgen receptor and LAT1, and the association between LAT1 expression and the acquisition of castration resistance.

Anti-androgen therapy carries significant complication risks, including the potential to alter the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. Clinicians administering this therapy for priapism management should be aware of these possible risks.

LNCaP cell adhesion to FN was significantly increased by stimulation with androgen when treated with 10 or 15 Gy ionizing radiations but not at 0 or 5 Gy. This increase was inhibited by treatment with Bicalutamide. LNCaP cells exposed to high dose radiation showed an increased expression of alpha(V) and beta(1) integrins in response to androgen treatment while Bicalutamide abolished this effect.

The majority of patients receive HT after biochemical progression despite primary therapy of prostate cancer with curative intent. It is difficult to differentiate at a low rise in PSA level, e.g., <or=1 ng/ml, between local or systemic recurrence.

Androgen and the androgen receptor (AR)-mediated signaling are crucial for prostate cancer development. Novel agents that can inhibit AR signaling in ligand-dependent and ligand-independent manners are desirable for the chemoprevention of prostate carcinogenesis and for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. We have shown recently that the pyranocoumarin compound decursin from the herb Angelica gigas possesses potent anti-AR activities distinct from the anti-androgen bicalutamide. Here, we compared the anti-AR activities and the cell cycle arrest and apoptotic effects of decursin and two natural analogues in the androgen-dependent LNCaP human prostate cancer cell culture model to identify structure-activity relationships and mechanisms. Decursin and its isomer decursinol angelate decreased prostate-specific antigen expression with IC(50) of approximately 1 mumol/L. Both inhibited the androgen-stimulated AR nuclear translocation and transactivation, decreased AR protein abundance through proteasomal degradation, and induced G(0/1) arrest and morphologic differentiation. They also induced caspase-mediated apoptosis and reactive oxygen species at higher concentrations. Furthermore, they lacked the agonist activity of bicalutamide in the absence of androgen and were more potent than bicalutamide for suppressing androgen-stimulated cell growth. Decursinol, which does not contain a side chain, lacked the reactive oxygen species induction and apoptotic activities and exerted paradoxically an inhibitory and a stimulatory effect on AR signaling and cell growth. In conclusion, decursin and decursinol angelate are members of a novel class of nonsteroidal compounds that exert a long-lasting inhibition of both ligand-dependent and ligand-independent AR signaling. The side chain is critical for sustaining the anti-AR activities and the growth arrest and apoptotic effects.

Testosterone supplementation increases skeletal muscle mass and decreases fat mass; however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We hypothesized that testosterone regulates body composition by promoting the commitment of mesenchymal pluripotent cells into myogenic lineage and inhibiting their differentiation into adipogenic lineage. Mouse C3H 10T1/2 pluripotent cells were treated with testosterone (0-300 nM) or dihydrotestosterone (DHT, 0-30 nM) for 0-14 d, and myogenic conversion was evaluated by immunocytochemical staining for early (MyoD) and late (myosin heavy chain II; MHC) myogenic markers and by measurements of MyoD and MHC mRNA and protein. Adipogenic differentiation was assessed by adipocyte counting and by measurements of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPAR gamma 2) mRNA and PPAR gamma 2 protein and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha. The number of MyoD+ myogenic cells and MHC+ myotubes and MyoD and MHC mRNA and protein levels increased dose dependently in response to testosterone and DHT treatment. Both testosterone and DHT decreased the number of adipocytes and down-regulated the expression of PPAR gamma 2 mRNA and PPAR gamma 2 protein and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha. Androgen receptor mRNA and protein levels were low at baseline but increased after testosterone or DHT treatment. The effects of testosterone and DHT on myogenesis and adipogenesis were blocked by bicalutamide. Therefore, testosterone and DHT regulate lineage determination in mesenchymal pluripotent cells by promoting their commitment to the myogenic lineage and inhibiting their differentiation into the adipogenic lineage through an androgen receptor-mediated pathway. The observation that differentiation of pluripotent cells is androgen dependent provides a unifying explanation for the reciprocal effects of androgens on muscle and fat mass in men.