High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

[The cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease].

2017-04-24

Otic drops are commonly used not only for otitis externa but also for otorrhea in the presence of tympanostomy tube or tympanic membrane perforation. Many studies have demonstrated the ototoxicity of common otic preparations such as Cortisporin otic drops. Recent studies have suggested the use of fluoroquinolone antibiotic drops as an alternative owing to their excellent antimicrobial coverage and no ototoxic effect. The purpose of this study was to assess the relative ototoxicity of four common otic preparations by direct exposure to isolated cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs). OHCs from adult chinchilla cochlea were exposed to standard bathing solution (control), Cortisporin, Cipro HC, Ciloxan, and Floxin. The cells were observed using an inverted microscope, and the images recorded in digital still-frame and video, and analyzed on the Image Pro-Plus 3.0 program. As measured by time to cell death and change in morphology of OHCs, Cortisporin was most toxic to OHCs. Among the fluoroquinolone drops, Floxin was more toxic than Ciloxan or Cipro HC.

We describe a method for the highly efficient and precise targeted modification of gene trap loci in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Through the Floxin method, gene trap mutations were reverted and new DNA sequences inserted using Cre recombinase and a shuttle vector, pFloxin. Floxin technology is applicable to the existing collection of 24,149 compatible gene trap cell lines, which should enable high-throughput modification of many genes in mouse ESCs.

Topical levofloxacin penetrates better than ofloxacin or ciprofloxacin into the aqueous of eyes with functioning filtering blebs. The combination of topical and oral levofloxacin may be preferable in the treatment of bleb-associated infections (NCT 00392275; Clinical trials.gov).

Testing following surgery indicated a sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in 19 (2.1%) ears. The SNHL existed prior to the surgery and there was no deterioration in the hearing postoperatively. The total cost for our study group who used Cortisporin was $15,500. If Floxin had been prescribed the cost would have been $45,000. Had Ciprodex been prescribed, the cost would have been $49,500.

The strong magnetic field influence characteristics of protocerebral neurosecretory neurons and corpora allata in the late Tenebrio molitor pupae.

We describe a method for the highly efficient and precise targeted modification of gene trap loci in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Through the Floxin method, gene trap mutations were reverted and new DNA sequences inserted using Cre recombinase and a shuttle vector, pFloxin. Floxin technology is applicable to the existing collection of 24,149 compatible gene trap cell lines, which should enable high-throughput modification of many genes in mouse ESCs.

We have successfully prepared biocompatible and biodegradable hollow microspheres with sizes between 2 and 5 mum using cyclohexane droplets as a template and the N-methylated chitosan (NMC) cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA) as the shell. The structure, morphology, and formation process of the hollow microspheres were characterized by FT-IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results revealed that the microspheres exhibited a very smooth and hollow structure. This work confirmed that the hollow microspheres were accomplished by fabricating on the basis of chemical cross-linking on the surface of the emulsion droplets and by removing cyclohexane as core. The results from SEM and TEM indicated that the emulsion droplets covered with cross-linked NMC in the oil-in-water system aggregated together to form a precipitate of microspheres by coagulating with acetone. Moreover, the cross-linked NMC on the surface of the microspheres continuously cured to form the tight shell, whereas the inner area became a cavity with increase of the aging time, leading to the hollow microspheres. In addition, an anti-infective drug, ofloxacin (Floxin), encapsulated in the microspheres more rapidly released to reach 90 wt % at pH 7.4 within 8 h than at pH 1.2.

In this investigator-masked study, 48 patients with functioning filtering blebs requiring cataract surgery were randomised into six groups of eight patients. Groups 1, 2 and 3 received topical ofloxacin 0.3% (Ocuflox), ciprofloxacin 0.3% (Ciloxan) and levofloxacin (Quixin) respectively; Groups 4, 5 and 6 received the same treatment with the corresponding oral dose of ofloxacin 400 mg (Floxin), ciprofloxacin 400 mg (Cipro) and levofloxacin 250 mg (Levaquin). Aqueous antibiotic levels were determined by mass spectrometry of aqueous samples from each patient.

In each of the studies of OE, CSOM and AOM-TT, ofloxacin otic solution was effective in eradicating the bacterial pathogen from the site of infection: equivalent to Cortisporin for children with OE; superior to amoxicillin/clavulanate for patients with AOM-TT who had acute drainage; and effective in eradicating bacterial pathogens from the external canal of patients with CSOM.