High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

The CNGRC-GG-D(KLAKLAK)2 peptide induces a caspase-independent, Ca2+-dependent death in human leukemic myeloid cells by targeting surface aminopeptidase N/CD13.


Mice allergic to ovalbumin (OVA) avoid drinking a solution containing this antigen. This was interpreted as related to IgE-dependent mast cell degranulation and sensory C fiber activation.

Clinical Research Information Service (CRiS) Identifier: KCT0000688 . Date of registration: 27 February 2013.

Postoperative nausea and vomiting often occur after surgery and general anesthesia in children and are the major reason for unexpected hospital admission after ambulatory surgery. Our study demonstrates that the prophylactic use of a small dose of ondansetron reduces postoperative vomiting in pediatric patients.

Histamine and serotonin are no major mediators of pruritus in hemodialysis patients. Elevated histamine levels are occassionally seen and may be due to the increased mast cell number found in a subgroup of hemodialysis patients. Our findings explain the only marginal relief of antihistamines and the controversial antipruritic effect of serotonin receptor antagonists in hemodialysis-related pruritus.

In morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery, addition of aprepitant to ondansetron can significantly delay vomiting episodes simultaneously lowering the incidence of postoperative vomiting.

Around 2620 patients in the reviewed studies were denied existing drugs, which, though not completely effective or without side effects, do bring some relief from postoperative nausea and vomiting. Drug regulatory bodies should collaborate with drug companies to ensure better comparison of new with established drugs. This would avoid placebos being given to more than the fewest patients necessary to confirm effect and would allow doctors to be informed more quickly about relative efficacies.

Relatively little research has examined the role of antiemetic agents in the treatment of acute gastroenteritis. The use of the selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonists (eg, ondansetron) offers a potentially valuable treatment option. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ondansetron for the treatment of vomiting associated with acute gastroenteritis in children.

The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism of action of radiation-induced emesis by determining the incidence of radiation-induced emesis following hemibody irradiation; the effects of specific antiemetics especially ondansetron, a 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonist, and to determine the relationship between radiation-induced emesis and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) through its active metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA).

Subjects were randomized to placebo, n = 7; Ond (24 mg QD), n = 9; Fl (5 mg QD) + Ond (12 mg QD), n = 9; and Fl (10 mg QD) + Ond (24 mg QD), n = 10.

In the process of implementation and innovation of paediatric dosage forms, buccal films for transmucosal administration of drug represent one of the most interesting approach. In fact, films are able to provide an extended duration of activity allowing minimal dosage and frequency and offer an exact and flexible dose, associated with ease of handling. The objective of the present study was to develop polymeric films for the sustained release of ondansetron hydrochloride, a selective inhibitor of 5-HT3 receptors indicated in paediatrics for the prevention and treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy or radiotherapy and postoperatively. Films were prepared by casting and drying of aqueous solutions containing different weight ratios of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) with chitosan (CH) or sodium hyaluronate (HA) or gelatin (GEL) and characterized for their physico-chemical and functional properties. The presence of HA, GEL and CH did not improve the mucoadhesive properties of HPMC film. The inclusion of GEL and CH in HPMC film increased in vitro drug release with respect to the inclusion of HA, although films containing HA showed the highest water uptake. Moreover in agreement with the release behaviour, the inclusion of CH and GEL provided higher drug permeation through porcine buccal mucosa with respect to HPMC film and ensured linear permeation profiles of drug.

A total of 262 chemotherapy courses were given to 44 patients (mean age 9.5 +/- 5.1 y) through the HCP, which represented 1012 patient care days and 24 different chemotherapy protocols. Monetary savings from the HCP ranged from $5180 per course of ifosfamide plus etoposide to $367 per course for high-dose methotrexate. Total monetary savings from the HCP during the 3-year period was $640,793. Successful control of nausea and vomiting with a combination of ondansetron plus methylprednisolone was achieved in approximately 80% of the patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy protocols.

The management of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) remains a persistent problem. Despite the use of prophylactic antiemetics, breakthrough nausea and vomiting still frequently occur. There have been no published studies comparing dolasetron and ondansetron for the treatment of PONV. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled study in adult outpatient surgery patients. We screened 559 consecutive adult surgery patients, with 92 patients randomized to either ondansetron or dolasetron. The objectives of the study were 1) to determine whether treatment of PONV with ondansetron 4 mg IV or dolasetron 12.5 mg IV would result in better outcomes in patients undergoing day surgery and 2) to compare the cost of drugs used for treating PONV. Thirty-three (70%) of 47 patients given ondansetron required rescue medication, compared with 18 (40%) of 45 patients given dolasetron (P < 0.004). Dolasetron was approximately 40% less expensive than ondansetron, and the costs of the study drug plus rescue antiemetics were 30% less in the dolasetron group than in the ondansetron group. Dolasetron provided greater efficacy for antiemetic treatment because of the need for less rescue therapy. Because of the decreased use of rescue antiemetics and acquisition cost at our hospital, costs in the dolasetron group were less than costs in the ondansetron group.