High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

The alpha and beta classes carbonic anhydrases from Helicobacter pylori as novel drug targets.


The mechanism by which raloxifene acts in the chemoprevention of breast cancer remains unclear. Because telomerase activity is involved in estrogen-induced carcinogenesis, we examined the effect of raloxifene on estrogen-induced up-regulation of telomerase activity in MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. Raloxifene inhibited the induction of cell growth and telomerase activity by 17beta-estradiol (E2). Raloxifene inhibited the E2-induced expression of the human telomerase catalytic subunit (hTERT), and transient expression assays using luciferase reporter plasmids containing various fragments of the hTERT promoter showed that the estrogen-responsive element appeared to be partially responsible for the action of raloxifene. E2 induced the phosphorylation of Akt, and pretreatment with a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY294002, attenuated the E2-induced increases of the telomerase activity and hTERT promoter activity. Raloxifene inhibited the E2-induced Akt phosphorylation. In addition, raloxifene also inhibited the E2-induced hTERT expression via the PI3K/Akt/NFkappaB cascade. Moreover, raloxifene also inhibited the E2-induced phosphorylation of hTERT, association of NFkappaB with hTERT, and nuclear accumulation of hTERT. These results show that raloxifene inhibited the E2-induced up-regulation of telomerase activity not only by transcriptional regulation of hTERT via an estrogen-responsive element-dependent mechanism and the PI3K/Akt/NFkappaB cascade but also by post-translational regulation via phosphorylation of hTERT and association with NFkappaB.

Estrogens increase both basal and LHRH-induced LH release in rat anterior pituitary cells in culture. Following 48 h of preincubation with 1 nM 17 beta-estradiol, the maximal LH response to LHRH is increased 1.5-fold while the ED50 value of LHRH action is decreased 2.5-fold from 500 to 200 pM. The maximal 3-fold stimulation of 0.3 nM LHRH-induced LH release by 17 beta-estradiol is exerted at a KD value of 14.4 pM. Keoxifene (300 nM) completely blocks the potent stimulatory effect of 17 beta-estradiol up to 1 nM, the highest concentration of the estrogen used. As shown by the complete reversal of the stimulatory effect of 0.1 and 1.0 nM 17 beta-estradiol by keoxifene at IC50 values of 7.7 and 34 nM respectively, the antiestrogen interacts competitively with 17 beta-estradiol at the estrogen binding site. When present alone, keoxifene shows no estrogenic activity. The present data show that keoxifene acts as a pure antiestrogen on the control of LHRH-induced LH release in rat pituitary gonadotrophs.

Primary hyperparathyroidism is the most common cause of hypercalcemia in the outpatient setting and is typically caused by a single benign parathyroid adenoma. Most patients with hyperparathyroidism are postmenopausal women. Patients can be asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic. Parathyroidectomy is the definitive cure for primary hyperparathyroidism, and no medical therapies have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for this disorder. Guidelines for surgery have been established by a National Institutes of Health consensus panel, but many patients do not meet these guidelines or have comorbid conditions that prohibit surgery. This review describes alternative treatment options for patients who decide against or are unable to proceed with surgery.

Sheep anterior cruciate and medial collateral ligament strength and stiffness are not altered by administration for 6 months of estrogen or a selective estrogen receptor agonist (raloxifene).

Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), has been shown to improved bone mineral density (BMD) and serum lipid profiles in healthy postmenopausal women. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of raloxifene on BMD, biochemical markers of bone metabolism and serum lipids in postmenopausal women with low bone density or osteoporosis. This Phase II, multicenter, 24-month, double-masked study assessed the efficacy and safety of raloxifene in 129 postmenopausal women (mean age +/- SD: 60.2 +/- 6.7 years) with osteoporosis or low bone density (baseline mean lumbar spine BMD T-score: -2.8). Women were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: placebo, 60 mg/day raloxifene-HCl (RLX 60) or 150 mg/day raloxifene-HCL (RLX 150) and concomitantly received 1000 mg/day calcium and 300 U/day vitamin D3. At 24 months, BMD was significantly increased in the lumbar spine (+3.2%), femoral neck (+2.1%), trochanter (+2.7%) and total hip (+1.6%) in the RLX 60 group compared with the placebo group (p < 0.05). The RLX 150 group had increases in BMD similar to those observed with RLX 60. A greater percentage of raloxifene-treated patients, compared with those receiving placebo, had increased BMD (p < 0.05). Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase activity, serum osteocalcin, and urinary type I collagen:creatinine ratio were significantly decreased in the RLX-treated groups, compared with the placebo group (p < 0.01). RLX 60 treatment significantly decreased serum levels of triglycerides, and total- and LDL-cholesterol levels (p < 0.01). The rates of patient discontinuation and adverse events were not significantly different among groups. In this study, raloxifene increased bone density, decreased bone turnover, and improved the serum lipid profile with minimal adverse events, and may be a safe and effective treatment for postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or low bone density.