High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Suppression of adrenal βarrestin1-dependent aldosterone production by ARBs: head-to-head comparison.


Atherosclerosis which results from gradual deposition of lipids in medium and large arteries is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Terminalia arjuna is a herb of Combretaceae family which contains hypolipidemic compounds and flavonoids with high antioxidative properties. This study was conducted to determine the effect of ethanolic fraction of T. arjuna on blood lipids and atherosclerosis in rabbits fed with high fat diet (HFD). Twenty New Zealand rabbits of either sex were randomly divided into five groups: the first two were normal diet group and HFD (21% fat) group and the remaining three groups received high cholesterol diet supplemented with standard drug (Atorvastatin 10 mg kg(-1) body weight), T. arjuna ethanolic fraction (100 and 200 mg kg(-1) body weight), respectively. The concentration of total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was determined in rabbits at the start of the experiment, at the 14th, 30th days and at the end of the study. Anti-atherogenic index was calculated from the lipid profile of the rabbits before sacrifice. At the end of the experimental period, the aorta was removed for assessment of atherosclerotic plaques. Results show that T. arjuna significantly decreases TC, LDL and TG levels and increases HDL and lessens atherosclerotic lesion in aorta (P < .05). Hence T. arjuna extract can effectively prevent the progress of atherosclerosis. This is likely due to the effect of T. arjuna on serum lipoproteins and its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

Insulin receptor auto-phosphorlylation and de-phosphorylation, glucose transporter 4 (GLUT-4 ) receptor synthesis and translocation, modulation of hepatic glucose metabolism through changes in Pyruvate kinase (PK) and Phosphenol Pyruvate Carboxikinase (PEPCK), altering the expression of PPAR (γ) and inhibition of intestinal glucosidases are some of the mechanisms responsible for improving glycaemic control with cinnamon therapy. We reviewed 8 clinical trials that used Cinnamomum cassia in aqueous or powder form in doses ranging from 500 mg to 6 g per day for a duration lasting from 40 days to 4 months as well as 2 clinical trials that used cinnamon on treatment naïve patients with pre-diabetes. An improvement in glycaemic control was seen in patients who received Cinnamon as the sole therapy for diabetes, those with pre-diabetes (IFG or IGT) and in those with high pre-treatment HbA1c. In animal models, cinnamon reduced fasting and postprandial plasma glucose and HbA1c.

The laparoscopic surgeon is trained to acquire advanced skills to perform the complicated laparoscopic surgery of the target tissue in a three-dimensional (3D) space by viewing its two-dimensional (2D) video image. This technique finds its parallel in a very ancient archery episode portrayed in the longest and the greatest Indian epic, Mahabarata. In this epic, Arjuna, the master archer, is required to employ the strategy of aiming at the eye of a target fish rotating above his head by viewing its reflected image below in water; of course, all this to win the hand of a beautiful princess! Arjuna is so trained that he cannot but excel in focusing his attention on his target. A comparative study of the laparoscopic surgeon and the ancient master archer is done in this paper with a view to throwing light on the interesting similarities between the archer and the modern laparoscopic surgeon with respect to training methods, skills, and techniques.

The antioxidant activities were analyzed by lipid per-oxidation assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay, total antioxidant activity and metal chelation.

Nearly 50% of diabetic patients worldwide use complementary medicines to treat or supplement their conventional diabetes treatment. Salacia reticulata (Kothala himbutu) is a woody climber used widely in the Ayurvedic system to treat diabetes and obesity.

A total of 25 samples of tube well water, fodder and buffalo blood were collected through a survey from arsenic contaminated areas and 20 samples from the uncontaminated, i.e., control areas of Ludhiana district, Punjab for determination of arsenic concentration. A total of 30 buffaloes (selected from above 45 animals) were divided into three groups of 10 each on the basis of blood arsenic level, viz., control group: Clinically healthy buffaloes from the uncontaminated area with the blood arsenic level within the normal limit (0-0.05 ppm); Arsenic exposed group: Buffaloes exposed to arsenic through intake of contaminated water and fodder in the arsenic affected area with the blood arsenic level above the normal limit of 0-0.05 ppm; treatment group: Arsenic exposed buffaloes treated with T. arjuna bark powder orally at 42 mg/kg b.w. OD for 30 days. Single blood samples were collected from control and arsenic exposed groups. Blood samples from the treatment group were collected on 0, 15(th), and 30(th) day of treatment along with one sample on the 45(th) day, i.e., after withdrawal of treatment. Activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and creatine kinase (CK) were assayed in plasma.