High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Short and midterm results of epi and endocardial cryoablation.


To find the cause of abnormal NMR spectra of lomerizine dihydrochloride, cetirizine dihydrochloride and flenfluramine camphoramide.

EDs of U.S. noninstitutionalized general and short-stay hospitals.

Mucociliary function is a major cleansing mechanism of the respiratory tract. Many drugs used in the treatment of respiratory diseases impair the ciliary beat frequency (CBF) of mucous membrane. Our aim was to study by means of a photoelectric technique, the effects of two antitussives--dextromethorphan and vadocaine--and two antihistamines--hydroxyzine and diphenhydramine--on the rat tracheal CBF in vitro. The CBF was measured from tracheal explants immersed in drug solutions. Dextromethorphan (1.0 mg/ml and 10.0 mg/ml) caused 16.9-20.8% decrease in the CBF during the 40 min. measurement period. Vadocaine (0.1 mg/ml and 0.5 mg/ml) decreased the CBF by 6.9%. Higher vadocaine concentrations caused a dose-dependent inhibitory effect so that mucociliary function stopped totally within 20 min. with 5.0 mg/ml vadocaine solution. Both diphenhydramine and hydroxyzine totally stopped the ciliary activity during 20 min. with concentrations of 2.5 mg/ml and 1.0 mg/ml. respectively. Locke-Ringer solution used as a control did not cause any change in the CBF. These results suggest that the antihistamines diphenhydramine and hydroxyzine are more ciliostatic than the antitussives dextromethorphan and vadocaine on the rat tracheal cilia in vitro. The results suggest further in vivo studies. The used photoelectric detection method proved to be suitable for evaluating drug effects on the CBF of respiratory mucosa.

N2O/O2 deepened the sedation while improving its success with minimal alteration in physiologic parameters.

A 2-week, single-center, randomized, open, parallel group comparative clinical study between rupatadine and levocetirizine in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis.

To determine the effect-site concentration (Ce) of propofol, required to achieving adequate sedation. To assess the efficacy and safety of a target-controlled infusion system during monitored anaesthesia care and to evaluate the ability of bispectral index (BIS) to predict sedation level. Study design. - Prospective clinical study.

The objective of this study was to define the nature, magnitude, and mechanisms of histamine-induced leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in postcapillary venules of the rat mesentery using intravital microscopic techniques. Superfusion of the mesentery with histamine (10(-7)-10(-5) M) resulted in a dose-related increase in the number of rolling leukocytes, a reduction in rolling velocity, and an increased clearance of FITC-labeled rat albumin from blood to superfusate. The histamine-induced recruitment of rolling leukocytes and increased albumin clearance were prevented by histamine H1 (hydroxyzine, diphenhydramine) but not H2 (cimetidine) receptor antagonists. Because histamine induces expression of the adhesion molecule P-selectin in cultured endothelial cells, a monoclonal antibody directed against rat P-selectin and soluble sialyl-LewisX oligosaccharide (the carbohydrate ligand to P-selectin) were also tested as inhibitors. Both were effective in preventing the histamine-induced recruitment of rolling leukocytes, but neither agent attenuated the increased albumin clearance. These observations suggest that (a) histamine recruits rolling leukocytes and increases albumin leakage in postcapillary venules via H1 receptor activation, (b) histamine-induced recruitment of rolling leukocytes is mediated in part by P-selectin expressed on the endothelial cell surface, and (c) the histamine-induced vascular albumin leakage is unrelated to leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. Our results are consistent with the view that histamine may act as a mediator of acute inflammatory reactions.

Fifteen healthy male volunteers (age range, 20-35 years) were divided into 3 subgroups and were studied following single oral administration of cetirizine at 10 mg (n = 5) and 20 mg (n = 5) or hydroxyzine at 30 mg (n = 5) using PET with 11C-doxepin. Each subject was scanned also following the administration of placebo. Binding potential and H(1)RO values were calculated in the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. Subjective sleepiness was also measured, and the correlation to H(1)RO was examined for each antihistamine.

Emedastine is a novel H1-receptor antagonist with pre-clinically well-documented anti-allergic effects. Here, we set out to study the relationship between emedastine pharmacokinetics and the suppressive effect on histamine-induced wheals and flares, and to compare these effects to placebo and cetirizine.

We found that ketoprofen (but not hydroxyzine or lidocaine) significantly attenuated tDCS-induced erythema regarding intensity and duration, with a medium effect compared with placebo. Erythema was overall mild, short-lived (lasting 18-24 min after tDCS ending), and more intense under the anode. Subjects with darker skin color also tended to present less intense tDCS-induced erythema. The prevalence of other adverse effects was low and did not differ between dermatological groups.