High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Screening for eligibility in the study of antihypertensive medication in children: experience from the Ziac Pediatric Hypertension Study.


Tardive dystonia is a serious extrapyramidal side effect emerging after long-term treatment with antipsychotics, frequently with a deteriorating course, and unsatisfactory treatment. Presently, clozapine is used for the cotreatment of tardive dystonia and psychosis, at the cost of serious side effects. Apart from clozapine, there have been case reports describing positive effects of quetiapine on dystonic symptoms. Aim of the present study was to demonstrate the ameliorating effects of quetiapine on dystonic symptoms, in a sample of patients suffering from antipsychotic-induced tardive dystonia.

Out-patients diagnosed of schizophrenia and beginning treatment with olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone or typical oral antipsychotics were included. Information on socio-demographic characteristics was obtained and in each visit (baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months) they were administered the generic HRQL questionnaire Euro-QoL-5D (EQ-5D) and the Social Functioning Scale (SFS).

This pilot study contributes a novel putative mechanism of action of quetiapine in alcoholism, namely an improvement in response inhibition.

The data presented here show that subchronic administration of ketamine induces cognitive inflexibility after a washout period. This cognitive deficit likely reflects clinically relevant aspects of cognitive dysfunction encountered in schizophrenic patients. The beneficial effects of quetiapine on set-shifting may have therapeutic implications for the treatment of schizophrenia and other disorders associated with frontal-dependent cognitive impairments.

This was an 8-week multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose phase 3 study. The primary endpoint was the mean change of the Montgomery-├ůsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score. Secondary endpoints included Clinical Global Impressions-Bipolar (CGI-BP) and remission rates.

The ED50 value of the drugs to reverse the phencyclidine-induced PPI disruption was significantly correlated with the affinity for the serotonin 2A receptor, but not for the dopamine D2, serotonin 2C, or alpha-1 receptor of each drug. In contrast, the ED50 value of the drugs to reverse the apomorphine-induced PPI disruption was significantly correlated with the affinity for the dopamine D2 receptor, but not for the serotonin 2A receptor.

A repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a significant difference in CTX levels and in the OC to CTX ratio between treatment groups (F = 4.481, P < 0.05; F = 8.114, P < 0.01). After 4 weeks of treatment, only the amisulpride group had significantly increased CTX levels and decreased OC/CTX. In addition, an obvious increase in PRL level and a reduction of sex hormone secretion after amisulpride treatment were found. No significant changes in bone turnover were observed in the haloperidol or quetiapine groups. Notably, a positive correlation between the CTX change to the change in PRL after treatment (r = 0.255, P < 0.05) was observed.

588 patients were enrolled and 446 (76%) completed the study. Improvement in PANSS total score at week 6 was significant versus placebo (-18.8) in all groups: -24.8 (p = .03), -30.9 (p < .001), and -31.3 (p < .001) for quetiapine XR 400, 600, and 800 mg, respectively, and -26.6 (p = .004) for quetiapine IR. There were also statistically significant differences in PANSS and CGI-I response rates for all active treatments versus placebo (all p < .05). The most common AEs in all quetiapine groups were somnolence and dizziness; there were no unexpected AEs with quetiapine XR. Incidence of AEs potentially related to extrapyramidal symptoms was similar to placebo.

Our experience, based on 3 cases, shows an early and lasting improvement of the tardive dyskinesia with quetiapine. This experience is reinforced by other investigators with similar cases. In all, we have 12 cases that support the efficacy of quetiapine in the treatment of tardive dyskinesias.

To examine the effectiveness of quetiapine versus conventional antipsychotics in improving cognitive and functional outcomes.

I conducted a literature search in Pubmed, Psychlit, and Embase for studies using atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of delirium. In the absence of studies, case reports were used.

Clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of quetiapine in the treatment of 23 hospitalized psychotic adolescents were evaluated retrospectively. Twelve patients were changed to quetiapine from another antipsychotic medication during their hospital stay. In these patients, CGI-S improved from 4.75+/-0.87 to 2.92+/-0.67 (observation period 3.7+/-1.6 months). The most common adverse events were transient tachycardia and sedation. Mild EPS occurred only in one patient under quetiapine monotherapy. Transaminase increases more than threefold above norm were observed in two patients. fT4 values were slightly below the norm in 67% of the cases. In 11 patients, quetiapine was initiated using a rapid titration schedule with high dosages in the acute phase. Receiving a mean maximum daily dose of 927+/-300 mg, CGI-S improved from 6.00+/-0.63 to 3.18+/-1.25 (observation period 2.9+/-1.8 months). Severe adverse events did not occur. Besides applying lorazepam temporarily in nine of the 11 patients, antipsychotic co-medication was not necessary in this group. In line with other studies, quetiapine may be considered as an effective treatment for adolescents with a severe psychotic disorder showing a favourable side-effect profile. Our preliminary data suggest that a rapid initiation with high doses could be a promising approach in acute psychotic adolescents.