High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Safe common agents for improved NMR contrast.


One of the reasons for suboptimal blood pressure (BP) control in patients with hypertension is poor adherence to treatment, which may be caused by treatment-emergent adverse events. Therefore, it is crucial for an antihypertensive agent to provide a high level of efficacy without compromising tolerability.

Olmesartan has been investigated in several clinical studies. This article reports on data from 1 such study with a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, dose-finding design in patients with mild to moderate hypertension (baseline mean sitting diastolic blood pressure, 100-114 mm Hg). The results from a meta-analysis of 7 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies are also presented.

In this study, 100 patients with stage I hypertension are characterized at baseline before being treated for 1 year to obtain a goal BP of less than 140/90 mm Hg as defined by Joint National Committee (JNC)-7. Resistance vessel remodeling is determined using the gluteal fat biopsy technique in the hypertensive patients and a group of normotensive healthy volunteers. Additionally, efforts will be made to define whether noninvasive hemodynamic parameters, retinal vessel measurement changes, or biologic markers may predict and track the underlying vascular morphologic and physiologic changes induced by either regimen during the 12-month treatment period.

Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has been shown to be more reliable than conventional measurements for hypertension assessment and the associated increased risk of cardiovascular events. Olmesartan/hydrochlorothiazide combination therapy has demonstrated increased blood pressure lowering over 24 hours compared with the component monotherapies. This prespecified pooled analysis of data from two trials investigated the effects of olmesartan/hydrochlorothiazide combination therapy and olmesartan monotherapy on 24-hour blood pressure control in patients with moderate-to-severe hypertension.

Current hypertension guidelines recommend using two antihypertensive agents when blood pressure (BP) control is not achieved with one single agent.

317 clinical sites in the USA and Puerto Rico were included in the study.

At week 12, OM 40/AML 10/HCTZ 25 mg resulted in significantly greater SeBP reductions in participants with diabetes (-37.9/22.0 mm Hg vs -28.0/17.6 mm Hg for OM 40/AML 10 mg, -26.4/14.7 mm Hg for OM 40/HCTZ 25 mg, and -27.6/14.8 mm Hg for AML 10/HCTZ 25 mg), CKD (-44.3/25.5 mm Hg vs -39.5/23.8 mm Hg for OM 40/AML 10 mg, -25.3/17.0 mm Hg for OM 40/HCTZ 25 mg, and -33.4/20.6 mm Hg for AML 10/HCTZ 25 mg), and chronic CVD (-37.8/20.6 mm Hg vs -31.7/18.2 mm Hg for OM 40/AML 10 mg, -30.9/17.1 mm Hg for OM 40/HCTZ 25 mg, and -27.5/16.1 mm Hg for AML 10/HCTZ 25 mg) (P<0.05 for all subgroups vs dual-component treatments). BP goal achievement was greater for participants receiving triple-combination treatment compared with the dual-combination treatments, and was achieved in 41.1%, 55.0%, and 38.9% of participants with diabetes, CKD, and chronic CVD on OM 40/AML 10/HCTZ 25 mg, respectively. At week 52, there was sustained BP lowering with the OM/AML/HCTZ regimen. Overall, the triple combination was well tolerated.

We investigated the relationship between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the achieved blood pressure, dietary habits and the presence/absence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in hypertensive patients treated with olmesartan medoxomil. A prospective cohort study with a 3-year follow-up was conducted in 14 721 olmesartan-naive outpatients (mean age: 64.9 years, 49.6% women) with essential hypertension. The association of CVD with achieved blood pressure, dietary habits and MetS was investigated by Cox proportional hazards analysis. There were 3059 patients (31.8%) with MetS (Japanese criteria) among 9625 evaluable patients. The mean baseline blood pressure was 157.4/88.8 mm Hg, which decreased to 134.0/76.1 mm Hg during treatment (P<0.0001). The annual incidence of CVD was 7.15 per 1000 persons during the study period. When the achieved blood pressure was stratified according to the Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension (JSH 2009), the risk of CVD increased significantly along with the severity of hypertension (P<0.0001), especially the risk of stroke. Investigation of dietary habits revealed a significant association between salt intake and the risk of stroke. Higher salt intake was associated with a significantly higher risk of stroke than lower salt intake (hazard ratio, 1.897; 95% confidence interval, 1.003-3.590). Blood pressure was well controlled in both patients with and without MetS, and there was no significant difference in the incidence of events between the two groups. In conclusion, the severity of hypertension (achieved blood pressure) is associated with the incidence of CVD, and the results of this study suggest that tight blood pressure control and salt restriction are important for preventing stroke.