High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Review of efficacy of rosuvastatin 5 mg.


To investigate the effect of atorvastatin on serum oxidative stress and N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide expression in rats.

These results indicate that statins exert their pleiotropic effects through SmgGDS upregulation with a resultant Rac1 degradation and reduced oxidative stress in animals and humans.

At baseline, all parameters were comparable between the sham and the dyslipidemia groups. At 8 weeks of dyslipidemia establishment, as compared to the sham group, body weight and lipid profiles were significantly elevated, and plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), malondialdehyde (MDA) and ADMA were concomitantly increased in accompanying with NO reduction in the dyslipidemia groups. With 4 weeks of atorvastatin therapy, as compared to the control group, lipid disorders and NO production were improved, and plasma levels of CRP, MDA and ADMA were significantly decreased in the high-dose atorvastatin group. ADMA concentration of cardiac tissues was also significantly reduced in the high-dose atorvastatin group. Notably, there was a trend to similar effects which did not reach statistical significance in the low-dose atorvastatin group when compared to the control group. Liver enzyme and CK were comparable after 4 weeks of atorvastatin therapy between groups.

The proposed model includes the cholesterol pool size in the liver and serum levels of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol. Both an additional and a multiplicative effect of phytosterol/-stanol intake on LDL cholesterol reduction were predicted from the model. The additional effect relates to the decrease of dietary cholesterol uptake reduction, the multiplicative effect relates to the decrease in enterohepatic recycling efficiency, causing increased cholesterol elimination through bile. From the model, it was demonstrated that a daily intake of 2 g phytosterols/-stanols reduces LDL cholesterol level by about 8% to 9% on top of the reduction resulting from statin use. The additional decrease in LDL cholesterol caused by phytosterol/-stanol use at the recommended level of 2 g/d appeared to be similar or even greater than the decrease achieved by doubling the statin dose.

Our study indicates that MYLIP p.N342S might be a pharmacogenetic marker for lipid-lowering therapy in patients with FH.

The frequency of the -629A allele was 0.412. Compared with CC or CA genotypes, individuals with AA genotype had lower CETP levels (P=0.026) and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (P=0.035). After 12 months of atorvastatin therapy, carriers with CC genotype had greater reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (P<0.001), reduced LP (a) (P=0.005), and elevated HDL-C (P=0.045) compared with CA or AA genotypes. The incidence of MACE after a mean follow-up of 17.3±5.2 months was 8.8%. The cumulative MACE-free survival rates were 90.1%, 85.2%, and 71.1% for CC, CA, and AA genotypes, respectively.

The present study examined the effects of atorvastatin and the in vitro effect of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I/phosphatidylcholine (POPC) discs on charge-based triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) subfractions in a patient with type III hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP) and the apoE2/2 phenotype.

OATP2B1 is a high-affinity uptake transporter for atorvastatin and is expressed in the vascular endothelium of the human heart, suggesting its involvement in cardiac uptake of atorvastatin.

Cancerogen, dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA), was used to induce pancreatic cancerogenesis and subcatunous implantation of syngenic murine Panc02 pancreatic cancer cells was adopted as well. Gemcitabine was used for chemotherapy. The peripheral blood, pancreatic lesions and tumor samples were harvested and analyzed to search for the potential target cell populations. The roles of aspirin and Lipitor to regulate these cell populations and their potential effects on pancreatic cancerogenesis and chemotherapeutic efficacy were investigated both in vitro and in vivo.

Recent Canadian lipid guidelines recommend that all high-risk patients receive medication to reduce low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) below 2.5 mmol/L. The recently published Reversal of Atherosclerosis with Aggressive Lipid Lowering (REVERSAL) and Pravastatin or Atorvastatin Evaluation and Infection Therapy (PROVE IT) studies compared strategies of cholesterol lowering with atorvastatin 80 mg versus pravastatin 40 mg. Atorvastatin halted the progression of atherosclerosis (whereas atherosclerosis progressed in the patients receiving pravastatin), and resulted in a 16% reduction in the primary composite end point (all-cause death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, revascularization and stroke) compared with the pravastatin-treated group. In the PROVE IT trial, LDL-C was reduced by atorvastatin to 1.6 mmol/L and by pravastatin to 2.46 mmol/L. Although lower LDL-C levels are one explanation for the improved outcomes with atorvastatin, pleiotropic differences of the two statins, such as their effects on inflammation and coagulation, cannot be excluded. Until trials are completed that compare outcomes from LDL-C lowering to different targets with the same statin, it is premature to recommend changes to the current Canadian guidelines. However, future recommendations may suggest much lower LDL-C targets than those currently recommended.