High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Prevalence and antifungal susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis complex isolates collected from oral cavities of HIV-infected individuals.


The economic evaluation was conducted using the results from a 10-year Markov model based around 3 key triggers for a switch in medical therapy for glaucoma, namely: lack of tolerance (using hyperemia as a proxy); intraocular pressure (IOP) not meeting treatment benchmark; and glaucoma progression. Clinical data from a comprehensive systematic literature review and meta-analysis were used. Direct costs associated with glaucoma treatment are considered (at 2008/9 prices) from the perspective of the UK NHS as payer (outpatient/secondary care setting). Using this model, the economic consequences of 3 prostaglandin-based treatment sequences were compared.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% (bimatoprost) in Japanese normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) patients with an intraocular pressure (IOP) of 18 mmHg or less.

To investigate the effect of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α), latanoprost, travoprost, bimatoprost, and tafluprost on human orbital preadipocyte differentiation and intracellular lipid storage, and to reveal the potential mechanisms by which topical prostaglandin analogs induce orbital fat volume reduction and cause deep superior sulcus syndrome.

This retrospective analysis of medical and pharmacy claims database included treatment-naive patients dispensed bimatoprost, latanoprost, or travoprost between 1/1/04-12/31/04. "Index agent" was defined as the first agent filled; "index date" was defined as the fill date. Follow-up continued for 358 days. Persistence measures for first therapy year were: (1) whether last fill had sufficient days supply to achieve medication possession at year's end, and (2) number of days for which the index agent was available (days covered). Associations between index agent and medication possession (logistic regression) and days covered (linear regression) were evaluated. Models were adjusted for gender, age, and previous ocular hypertension diagnosis.

Glaucoma is an important cause of irreversible blindness that represents a significant economic burden; most direct costs of glaucoma are drug-related. We calculated the annual cost of some of the most commonly prescribed glaucoma medications in Mexico, according to their average wholesale price (AWP) and dose regimen. Annual costs ranged from USD4.97 for Imot 15 ml (timolol 0.5 %; Laboratorios Sophia) to USD675.39 for Alphagan 5 ml (brimonidine 0.2 %; Allergan, Inc.). β-Blockers were the least expensive glaucoma medications (range USD20.44-55.44). Alphagan 5 ml was 250 % more expensive than other selective α(2)-agonists. Of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, dorzolamide 2 % was less expensive than brinzolamide 1 % (USD326.91 vs. USD418.96). The annual cost for prostaglandin analogs ranged from USD235.58 for bimatoprost 0.03 % to USD337.78 for latanoprost 0.005 %. Some fixed combinations were less expensive than separate combinations. The average annual cost for all treatments increased by 27.87 ± 10.09 % between 2009 and 2012. Annual glaucoma therapy cost seems to be lower in Mexico than in other countries, due to a lower AWP, especially for some medications made by Mexican laboratories.

An analysis of covariance model was used for a noninferiority test of the primary efficacy variable, with mean area under the 24-hour IOP curve after 12 weeks of treatment as response variable and treatment, center, and baseline IOP as factors. A secondary analysis was performed on the within-treatment change from baseline.

161 articles were identified of which 42 were included in the analysis. A total of 9295 patients participated in the included trials. Based on all studies, timolol on average had a weighted mean IOP reduction of 22.2%, while latanoprost, travoprost and bimatoprost had a weighted mean IOP reduction of 26.7%, 28.7% and 30.3%, respectively. Analysis of target achievement to various IOP levels shows that bimatoprost seems more efficacious than latanoprost. The direct comparisons (head-to-head studies) also show that bimatoprost is the most efficacious treatment, however it is not conclusive whether latanoprost or travoprost is better in reducing IOP.

In clinical practice in Greece, BTFC is well tolerated and effectively lower the IOP in patients with POAG or OHT who requires additional IOP lowering on their previous therapy.

A retrospective chart review of 68 eyes of 45 consecutive patients who were switched from QHS to QOD-HS bimatoprost due to intolerable conjunctival hyperemia between May 2005 and May 2008. IOP in the morning (AM) and afternoon (PM) of the next day after administration (day 1) and the day after (day 2) on QOD-HS regimen was compared with IOP in the AM and PM when they were on QHS regimen, 4-6 weeks after switching to QOD-HS.

To develop a model to estimate and compare the cost of changing therapy due to hyperemia in glaucoma patients treated initially either with latanoprost, bimatoprost, or travoprost monotherapy.

Bimatoprost and tafluprost were rapidly (within 15 min) absorbed from the solution by lotrafilcon A lenses, reaching an equilibrium within 60 min. At any lens:solution (w/v) ratio, the extent of drug binding to lens material was greater for tafluprost than for bimatoprost. The log(EB) values correlated with solute octanol:water partition coefficient (logP) values, indicating that hydrophobic interactions are important in controlling solute partitioning into the lens material.