High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Presence of vasoconstrictor 5HT1-like receptors revealed by precontraction of rabbit isolated mesenteric artery.


Abacavir/lamivudine increased total and LDL cholesterol compared with tenofovir/emtricitabine, but it did not cause inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, or hypercoagulability in virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients.

Sofosbuvir may be coadministered safely with many commonly used antiretrovirals. The addition of sofosbuvir to peginterferon-ribavirin was highly effective as assessed by SVR in HCV/HIV-coinfected patients.

Currently, there is no consensus on the efficacy and resistance of de novo combination therapy versus monotherapy for treatment naive patients of chronic hepatitis B (CHB).

Adding 7 days of an enzyme inducer to single-dose nevirapine to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV significantly reduced subtherapeutic nevirapine levels by shortening the half-life of nevirapine. As prolonged subtherapeutic nevirapine dosage leads to the emergence of resistance, single-dose nevirapine could be used with phenytoin as an alternative if other ARVs were unavailable.

We determined the cumulative virological, serological and biochemical outcomes of 165 lamivudine-resistant chronic hepatitis B patients on lamivudine and adefovir for up to 5 years. Resistance profiles using a line probe assay were determined among patients with detectable viraemia. The significance of different baseline and on-treatment virological parameters was analysed.

Anti HIV-1 therapy with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors can select for drug-resistant reverse transcriptase variants with altered enzyme properties. Some of the mutations, e.g. Met184Val and Met184Ile, result in an increase in polymerase fidelity of the enzyme as measured in biochemical assays; however, the effect of such changes on the fidelity during viral replication is largely unknown. In this study, the codon 184 variants were used to investigate whether the mutation at codon 184 affects the mutation spectrum and mutation rate of the mutant viruses.

140 HBV-infected renal transplant patients were included (71% males; age 46 ± 10 years; post-renal transplant time 8 ± 5 years). During follow-up, 25% (35/140) of the patients presented exacerbation within 3.4 ± 3 years after renal transplant. Viral replication was observed in all patients with exacerbation. Clinical and/or laboratory signs of hepatic insufficiency were present in 17% (6/35) of the patients. Three patients died as a consequence of liver failure. In univariate analysis variables associated with exacerbation were less frequent use of prophylactic/preemptive lamivudine and of mycophenolate mofetil. Lamivudine use was the only variable independently associated with exacerbation, with a protective effect.

To identify pertinent articles for this review, the MEDLINE database was searched from 1990 to June 2006 using the terms sex, gender, antiretroviral therapy, ART, HAART, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, NRTI, NNRTI, and protease inhibitors. Search results were restricted to English language and human studies. The reference lists of identified articles were also used, as well as abstracts from relevant conferences. In addition, individual antiretroviral drugs were searched by sex/gender or by pharmacokinetics.

Most chronic hepatitis B patients do not undergo a curative response to interferon-alpha or nucleoside/nucleotide-based regimens and require long-term therapy. Long-term safety, efficacy and resistance profiles of hepatitis B virus (HBV) drugs are therefore crucial issues for patient management. Adefovir dipivoxil is a nucleotide prodrug indicated for the treatment of patients with hepatitis B e antigen positive or hepatitis B e antigen negative chronic hepatitis B, lamivudine-resistant HBV infection, HBV infection pre- or post-liver transplantation, or HlV co-infection. Long-term data from clinical trials of up to 5 years duration of adefovir dipivoxil have recently become available and are reviewed here. These data demonstrate that adefovir dipivoxil therapy results in sustained efficacy and safety in the majority of patients after multiple years of treatment. The efficacy of adefovir dipivoxil in treating lamivudine-resistant HBV and the delayed emergence of adefovir resistance are key factors contributing to the durable response achieved in broad groups of chronic hepatitis B patients.

At day 21, the mean change in viral load was -0.71 and -0.90 log(10) HIV-1 RNA copies/mL in the 600 and 800 mg ATC groups, respectively, compared with a -0.03 log(10) change in the 3TC group. In patients with at least three thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs) at baseline, greater reductions in viral load were observed in the 800 mg ATC group at day 21 than in the 600 mg ATC group. Few genotypic changes were detected at day 21 [two patients (600 mg ATC) lost and three patients (800 mg ATC) gained a TAM] and all patients with detectable virus retained the M184V mutation. The safety profiles of the two ATC doses were similar to that of 3TC.

Although this study was not a randomized, blinded trial, it suggests that lamivudine is active against.