High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Phototoxic potential of the new quinolone antibacterial agent levofloxacin in mice.


The kinetic analysis was performed using the TG and DSC data in air for the first step of cephalosporin's decomposition at four heating rates. The both TG and DSC data were processed according to an appropriate strategy to the following kinetic methods: Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose, Friedman, and NPK, in order to obtain realistic kinetic parameters, even if the decomposition process is a complex one.The EGA data offer some valuable indications about a possible decomposition mechanism. The obtained data indicate a rather good agreement between the activation energy's values obtained by different methods, whereas the EGA data and the chemical structures give a possible explanation of the observed differences on the thermal stability. A complete kinetic analysis needs a data processing strategy using two or more methods, but the kinetic methods must also be applied to the different types of experimental data (TG and DSC).

The transport characteristics of aminopenicillins (ampicillin and amoxicillin), aminocephalosporins (cephalexin, cephradine and cefadroxil) and cefazolin have been compared with those of an actively transported substance (D-glucose) and a passively transported substance (L-glucose). Although the initial uptake of the aminocephalosporins was stimulated in the presence of an inward H+ gradient, there was no overshoot in the uptake of any of the drugs tested, even in the presence of an H+ gradient. Also, the time course and the degree of uptake of these drugs were similar to those of L-glucose, especially in the absence of an H+ gradient. These results suggest that the beta-lactam antibiotics tested, like L-glucose, pass through the rat intestinal brush border membrane mainly by passive diffusion. However, the differences in absorption between these drugs, like the differences in their disappearance from a proximal loop of rat intestine, cannot be explained by a simple permeation process alone.

A fully automated method is described for the determination of amoxicillin and cefadroxil in bovine serum and muscle tissue. The method is based on the on-line combination of dialysis and solid-phase extraction for sample preparation, and column liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. In order to enhance the UV detectability of the analytes, post-column addition of 0.1 M sodium hydroxide is performed. The method shows good linearity and repeatability for both analytes in serum as well as in muscle tissue; the limits of detection in these samples are 0.05 microgram/ml and 0.2 microgram/g, respectively. The method has a sample throughput of 30 samples per 24 h.

Neither beta-lactamase nor bacteriocin produced by normal pharyngeal flora are related to bacteriologic treatment failures in GABHS pharyngitis. Cefadroxil seems to be more effective than penicillin V in eradicating GABHS from patients classified as more likely to be streptococcal carriers. However, among patients we classified as more likely to have bona fide GABHS pharyngitis, the effectiveness of cefadroxil and penicillin V seems to be comparable.

The choroid plexus uptake of [(3)H]cefadroxil was studied in peptide transporter 2 (PEPT2) wild-type and null mice as a function of temperature, transport inhibitors, pH, and saturability. At normal pH (7.4) and temperature (37 degrees C), the uptake of 1 microM cefadroxil was reduced by 83% in PEPT2(-/-) mice as compared with PEPT2(+/+) mice (p < 0.001). A further reduction was achieved in null animals by reducing the temperature to 4 degrees C, or by adding saturating concentrations of unlabeled cefadroxil or p-aminohippurate (p < 0.05). Glycylsarcosine coadministration could inhibit the uptake of cefadroxil in PEPT2(+/+) mice (p < 0.01) but not PEPT2(-/-) mice. Although a proton-stimulated uptake of cefadroxil was demonstrated in PEPT2(+/+) mice (pH 6.5 versus pH 7.4; p < 0.01), no pH dependence was observed in PEPT2(-/-) mice. Kinetic parameters for cefadroxil (without p-aminohippurate) in wild-type mice were: V(max) = 5.4 pmol/mg/min, K(m) = 34 microM, and K(d) = 0.0069 microl/mg/min; in the presence of p-aminohippurate, the parameters were: V(max) = 4.1 pmol/mg/min, K(m) = 27 microM, and K(d) = 0.0064 microl/mg/min. In null animals, the kinetic parameters of cefadroxil (without p-aminohippurate) were: V(max) = 2.7 pmol/mg/min, K(m) = 110 microM, and K(d) = 0.0084 microl/mg/min; in the presence of p-aminohippurate, only a K(d) = 0.010 microl/mg/min was observed. Based on kinetic and inhibitor analyses, it was determined that (under linear conditions), 80 to 85% of cefadroxil's uptake in choroid plexus is mediated by PEPT2, 10 to 15% by organic anion transporter(s), and 5% by nonspecific mechanisms. These findings demonstrate that PEPT2 is the primary transporter responsible for cefadroxil uptake in the choroid plexus. Moreover, the data suggest a role for PEPT2 in the clearance of peptidomimetics from cerebrospinal fluid.

Eye, nose, throat and bronchopulmonary infections are frequently associated with inflammatory symptoms. This often leads the clinician to prescribe a combination of an anti-inflammatory and an antibiotic. Cefadroxil and josamycin are among the antibiotics most frequently used in these infections, and they are often combined with acetylsalicylic acid in various pharmaceutical formulations. The study of possible pharmacokinetic and bacteriological interactions was performed in healthy volunteers who received in a crossover protocol each of the two antibiotics, either alone or combined with acetylsalicylic acid or lysine acetylsalicylate. No marked pharmacokinetic interaction was noted except an increase in the AUC for plasma concentrations of cefadroxil when combined with a salicylate. A greater uniformity of kinetic profiles was seen with cefadroxil than with josamycin. Lastly, with the exception of one strain, the salicylates did not alter the antibacterial activity of cefadroxil.