High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Peritonsillar abscess: diagnosis and treatment.


A 32-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, double-armed study in 40 adult patients with history of persistent AR, clinical allergy to house-dust mites, and a total nasal symptom score of at least 5 (congestion of at least 2) has been performed. Patients with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, nonallergic rhinitis with clinical allergy associated with seasonal allergens, and other serious diseases were excluded. There were four 6-week treatment periods separated by 2-week washout periods. Twenty patients received either montelukast or antihistamine, a combination of montelukast and antihistamine, or placebo. The sequence of treatment was randomly assigned. Nasal symptoms were assessed using a 4-point scale at baseline, daily during the 1st week and on days 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 of treatment.

Mean maximum concentration (C(max)) was found (17+/-14) microg/L for LOR at 1.2 h and (16+/-9) microg/L for DCL at 1.5 h. Mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC(0-infinity)) was (47+/-49) microg x h x L(-1) for LOR and (181+/-122) microg x h x L(-1) for DCL, respectively. The apparent elimination half-life (T1/2) of LOR was (6+/-4) h, and that of DCL was (13.4+/-2.6) h. The ratios of AUC(DCL)/AUCLOR ranged from 0.36 to 54.5.

Eight-week open clinical trial. The 25 ambulatory patients retained existing treatment for asthma during the duration of the study. A two-week period of observation without the drug under investigation was followed by a six-week therapeutic phase, during which a single daily dose of 10 mg loratadine was taken. H1 antihistaminics, DNCG, ketotifene and systemic corticoids were not permitted. To monitor the therapeutic effect, the lung function parameters (VC, FEV1, peak flow, resistance) and the symptom score were established.

To study the efficacy and safety of loratadine syrup compared with ketotifen and placebo in prevention of recurrent wheezing in young children.

Mizolastine is a novel histamine H1-antagonist registered in Europe for the management of allergic rhinitis and urticaria.

Rhinovirus infections are the main cause of wheezing in children and adults. Studies carried out with experimental infections report that at least in certain conditions, this infection may spread to the lower respiratory tract as the virus acts on the respiratory epithelium. In vitro experiments with cells from the immune system and lower respiratory tract suggest that the mechanisms of action are directly linked to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Both in vivo and in vitro evidence shows that rhinoviruses may stimulate bronchial epithelial cells to produce cytokines and pro-inflammatory chemokines. They may also stimulate the cholinergic and non-cholinergic nervous system, increasing the production of ICAM-1 and may give rise to a T-lymphocyte non-specific response or to T-lymphocyte replication in direct relation with viral infection. In addition, greater production of cysteinyl leukotrienes has been observed in the secretions of patients with bronchospasm. Experimental infection with Rhinovirus increases clinical symptomatology and bronchial hyperreactivity. The latter is associated with increased eosinophils and cationic proteins in sputum. The above findings suggest that multiple cellular pathways are involved in the induction of exacerbations of asthma induced by the virus. In addition, the possible stimulating role of exposure to allergens in sensitized patients would also increase allergic inflammation. Because of the limited therapeutic efficacy of steroids in reducing exacerbations, new treatment strategies based on greater insight into the physiopathology of the role of viruses in asthma are needed.

ET-1 is one of the mediators that impact AR development and ET-1 antagonists can be useful for symptom control and for decreasing allergic inflammation in AR patients.

This study demonstrated the benefit of a short course of a systemic low dosage of corticosteroids with and without antihistamine therapy during acute severe exacerbations of allergic rhinitis. Combination treatment with betamethasone 1.0mg and loratadine 10mg was significantly better in relieving symptoms of hayfever as experienced by patients. This was the first study to give evidence of benefit of systemic low-dose corticosteroids with and without an antihistamine in patients with acute exacerbations of allergic rhinitis.

The effectiveness and safety of fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray (200 micrograms once daily for 4 weeks) were compared with those of loratadine (10 mg once daily for 4 weeks) in 114 adults and adolescents with seasonal allergic rhinitis in this multicenter, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, parallel-group study. Patients recorded their nasal symptoms (nighttime and daytime obstruction, sneezing, itching, rhinorrhea, and overall discomfort) using a 4-point scale (0 = no symptoms, 3 = very frequent symptoms) in daily diaries. Clinicians assessed patients' nasal symptoms (nighttime and daytime obstruction, sneezing, itching, and rhinorrhea) using a 4-point scale at every scheduled visit. Clinicians and patients assessed the overall effectiveness of treatment at the end of the study. Fluticasone propionate improved clinician-rated total nasal symptom scores (defined as the sum of five nasal symptoms) more than loratadine at the 2-week and 4-week assessments (P < or = 0.008). Clinicians give fluticasone propionate better global ratings than loratadine (P = 0.04). After 4 weeks of treatment, between-group differences in clinician-rated individual nasal symptoms favored fluticasone propionate (P < 0.05), with the exception of nasal itching (P = 0.11). These findings were confirmed by between-group differences in the percentages of symptom-free days calculated from patient-recorded daily diary-card data. Both treatments were well tolerated. The incidence of adverse events between groups was similar. Fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray 200 micrograms administered once daily in the morning was more effective than loratadine 10 mg administered once daily for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis.