High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Paracoccidioidomycosis and its etiologic agent Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.


When major elevations of liver enzymes (more than three times the upper normal limit) were detected in several flupirtine-exposed patients, the study was prematurely discontinued. Based on study-end data, hepatotoxicity was detected in 31% of patients receiving flupirtine for ≥ 6 weeks.

A total of 315 women and 63 men were randomized and treated, and 332 participants (276 women, 56 men) completed the study. At the end of the study, extended-release oxybutynin was significantly more effective than tolterodine in each of the main outcome measures: weekly urge incontinence (P=.03), total incontinence (P=.02), and micturition frequency episodes (P=.02) adjusted for baseline. Both drugs improved symptoms of overactive bladder significantly from baseline to the end of the study as assessed by the 3 main outcome measures (P<.001). Dry mouth, the most common adverse event, was reported by 28.1% and 33.2% of participants taking extended-release oxybutynin and tolterodine, respectively (P=.32). Rates of central nervous system and other adverse events were low and similar in both groups.

Mirabegron showed quicker and superior improvement in HR-QoL compared to tolterodine 4 mg ER. A limitation of the study is that EQ-5D was a secondary outcome in the pivotal trials, which were not powered to measure differences on EQ-5D.

The goal of this study was to formulate and evaluate side effects of transdermal delivery of proniosomal gel compared to oral tolterodine tartrate (TT) for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB). Proniosomal gels are surfactants, lipids and soy lecithin, prepared by coacervation phase separation. Formulations were analyzed for drug entrapment efficiency (EE), vesicle size, surface morphology, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, in vitro skin permeation, and in vivo effects. The EE was 44.87%-91.68% and vesicle size was 253-845 nm for Span formulations and morphology showed a loose structure. The stability and skin irritancy test were also carried out for the optimized formulations. Span formulations with cholesterol-containing formulation S1 and glyceryl distearate as well as lecithin containing S3 formulation showed higher cumulative percent of permeation such as 42% and 35%, respectively. In the in vivo salivary secretion model, S1 proniosomal gel had faster recovery, less cholinergic side effect on the salivary gland compared with that of oral TT. Histologically, bladder of rats treated with the proniosomal gel formulation S1 showed morphological improvements greater than those treated with S3. This study demonstrates the potential of proniosomal vesicles for transdermal delivery of TT to treat OAB.

Most OAB patients reported improvement of their OAB symptoms with 12-week tolterodine ER 4 mg treatment. There was a significant achievement of symptom-specific goal on the key OAB symptoms. But, PGA did not correlate with objective outcomes.

To assess the effectiveness of percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) on adult patients with overactive bladder syndrome, using a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), clinical controlled trials (CCTs), and prospective observational cohort studies.

A capillary column switching system was developed for the determination of low, unbound concentrations of the basic drug tolterodine and its active 5-hydroxymethyl (5-HM) metabolite in human plasma. Free concentrations of tolterodine and 5-HM at pM and nM (pg/ml and ng/ml) levels were obtained by ultrafiltration of 40-400 microliters plasma at 37 degrees C. The free fraction (%) was independent of the plasma concentrations of the analytes. Detection of the analytes was performed by sheathless electrospray tandem mass spectrometry in the multiple-reaction monitoring mode. The selectivity of the mass spectrometric detection and the additional clean-up on the pre-column allowed direct injection of the ultrafiltrated plasma samples. Tolterodine and 5-HM were pre-concentrated on a reversed-phase capillary pre-column (1 cm x 200 microns) and subsequently backflushed onto the separation column (25 cm x 200 microns). The stability of the chromatographic system was good; a large number of ultrafiltrated plasma samples could be injected and the relative standard deviation of the retention times was typically < or = 1% (within-day). The accuracy was between 86 and 105% and the precision was between 1 and 7% without the use of an internal standard. Linear calibration curves were obtained between 100 pM and 100 nM.

In this nationwide study, there was a 70% increased rate of expedited prescriptions of anticholinergic drugs for the treatment of overactive bladder in a relatively stable population.

To evaluate the safety of solifenacin and tolterodine in the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB).

To compare tolterodine with oxybutynin in treatment of urge incontinence.

Tolterodine, administered at twice the expected therapeutic dosage, did not change the disposition of the probe drugs debrisoquine, omeprazole and caffeine and thus had no detectable effect on the activities of CYPs 2D6, 2C19, 3A4 and 1A2. Alteration of the metabolism of substrates of these enzymes by tolterodine is unlikely to occur.