High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Pain perception of patients predisposed to anxiety and depressive disorders in emergency department.


This study was planned to establish resistance profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in the West part of Turkey.

To compare the safety and efficacy of adding levofloxacin to standard four drug ATT regimen (RHZE).

Consecutive individuals referred for treatment of MAC lung disease were treated with a regimen that included either clarithromycin, 500 mg bid, or azithromycin, 250 mg/d, on weekdays; ethambutol, 15 mg/kg/d; and clofazimine, 100 mg/d. The intention was to treat patients for a minimum of 12 months. The diagnosis of MAC lung disease was confirmed by multiple positive sputum culture findings in patients with typical symptoms and radiologic findings.

Tuberculosis is an important public health problem in developed and, especially, developing countries. The incidence of multi-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has increased in recent years. Mycobacterial culture and susceptibility testing must be rapidly concluded for effective treatment and control of the disease. The present study evaluated the reliability of the Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) method for testing the susceptibility of M. tuberculosis to four first-line antimicrobial drugs by comparing MGIT results to those obtained by the method of proportion (MOP), which served as the reference method.

We report a case of septic arthritis of an interphalangeal joint and osteomyelitis of the phalanx due toMycobacterium malmoense in a 61-year-old man with a 20 year history of rheumatoid arthritis treated with steroids and azathioprine. This was successfully treated with ethambutol, rifampicin and clarithromycin. To our knowledge this is the only reported case of septic arthritis due to this pathogen which is usually associated with respiratory disease or cervical lymphadenitis.

Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of M tuberculosis isolates for isoniazid (INAH), ethambutol (EMB), rifampicin (RMP) and streptomycin (SM) tested in drug incorporated Lowenstein Jenson (LJ) medium using resistance ratio method.

The emergence of MDR-TB in Nairobi is a cause for concern. An outbreak would be catastrophic, creating not only increased morbidity and mortality but also a tremendous strain on already limited health care resources. Lack of policies for the treatment and management of MDR-TB and the unavailability of appropriate diagnostic facilities may increase its spread. Efforts to prevent outbreaks of MDR-TB should be emphasised.

A case is reported of a post-traumatic olecranon bursitis caused by Mycobacterium kansasii following an injury sustained in a public swimming pool. It responded to surgical debridement and combined rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol antimicrobial therapy. A literature search was performed and a treatment regimen for this uncommon condition is suggested.

A 68-year-old man had malaise, weight loss, and enlarged right cervical lymph nodes. The first biopsy from a right cervical lymph node showed granulomas with negative acid-fast bacillus (AFB) staining, and he was treated for extrapulmonary tuberculosis with isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. Symptoms persisted even after receiving antituberculosis drugs for 2 months. He was transferred to our center for F-18 FDG PET/CT scan under the suspicion of occult malignancy. The PET/CT scan showed increased FDG uptake in the right cervical lymphadenopathy and multiple bony lesions. The second biopsy from the FDG-avid cervical lymph node and bone marrow confirmed nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection. After another 6 months of adjusted antituberculosis therapy with isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and clarithromycin, a repeat PET/CT scan showed remission of previous lesions.

A range of new ethambutol analogues was synthesised and their inhibitory potencies were probed with Mycobacterium smegmatis. Interestingly, apparently even minor deviation from the structure of the parent compound resulted in reduced antimycobacterial activity.

Tuberculosis centre of Hôpital Jamot in Yaoundé- Cameroon from April 2006 to September 2007.

Determination of ethambutol toxicity in both lines, using a microtiter tetrazolium assay, luminometric measurement of ATP/ADP ratios and determination of mtDNA copy numbers by Real-time PCR.

Risorine, a novel formulation of rifampicin 200 mg with bioenhancer piperine 10mg, is found to be highly effective and well tolerated in the treatment of drug - susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis.

embB306 mutations are potential markers for detecting ethambutol resistance in clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. However, more recently, embB306 mutations have been found in ethambutol susceptible isolates and an association with broad drug resistance rather than ethambutol resistance has been reported. To further investigate this question, we analyzed the association between embB306 mutations and phenotypic ethambutol resistance among 197 isolates from a drug resistance survey performed in Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan. 39 strains had an embB306 mutation, out of which seven were ethambutol susceptible, thus, displaying discrepant test results. After re-analysis, the seven isolates were tested ethambutol resistant. All of these strains had an increased ethambutol MIC, however, three strains showed no or weak growth on the critical concentration of 2 microg/ml on Löwenstein-Jensen. In three strains we confirmed the presence of heteroresistant mixed populations which might influence conventional ethambutol testing. Final concordance between molecular and phenotypic EMB testing was high with a sensitivity of 78% and a specificity of 100%. Our results confirm that embB306 mutations are useful markers for predicting ethambutol resistance. Discrepancies between molecular and phenotypic ethambutol resistance test results are most likely caused by problems with conventional susceptibility testing.