Organophosphates dysregulate dopamine signaling, glutamatergic neurotransmission, and induce neuronal injury markers in striatum.
In human NK cells and CTL it has been shown that release of lytic molecules is, at least in part, responsible for the lysis of target cells (TC). Of the various types of molecules thought to be involved in cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC), perforin and the serine proteases (granzymes A and B) are the best described. Using mammalian expression vectors (pRSV-neo and pSV2-neo), antisense constructs for perforin and granzyme B were independently electroporated into YT-INDY, a human non-MHC-restricted, IL-2-independent, cytotoxic lymphocyte. Transfected YT-INDY was then selected for expression of the plasmid by antibiotic G418 resistance. The presence of plasmid was confirmed by detection of the integrated plasmid G418 resistance gene using PCR. The presence of antisense perforin in YT-INDY (YT-xPFP) inhibited lytic ability by > 95% compared to YT-INDY transfected with plasmid alone or plasmid with unrelated antisense (YT-neo, YT-ctrl, respectively). Likewise, the presence of antisense GrB (YT-xGrB) inhibited the lytic ability of YT-INDY by > 95%. Western analysis revealed a 30% decrease in the level of perforin and a 55% decrease in granzyme B protein levels compared to YT-neo. Northern analysis using oligo probes complementary to perforin and granzyme B mRNA showed a decrease in their respective message levels. In conclusion, stably transfected antisense constructs for perforin and granzyme B essentially eliminated the lytic ability of YT-INDY. These results strongly indicate that both perforin and granzyme B are required by this human cytotoxic lymphocyte for effective TC lysis.
To compare RANTES expression between intestinal biopsy specimens of patients with Crohn's disease and those with ulcerative colitis.
This study highlights commonly used Ayurvedic medicines that can be explored for safely enhancing memory and vitality performance. Hence, detailed and scientifically designed research on these drugs would help to identify safe and effective drugs for enhancing the same.
Bacopa monnieri L. (common name brahmi) is a traditional and renowned Indian medicinal plant with high commercial value for its memory revitalizer potential. Demand for this herb has further escalated due to popularization of various brahmi-based drugs coupled with reported anticancer property. Insufficient seed availability and problems associated with seed propagation including short seed viability are the major constraints of seed conservation in the gene banks. In vitro clonal propagation, a prerequisite for in vitro conservation by enhanced axillary branching was standardized. We have developed a simple, single step protocol for in vitro establishment, propagation and medium-term conservation of B. monnieri. Single node explants, cultured on Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with BA (0.2 mg/L), exhibited shoot proliferation without callus formation. Rooting was achieved on the same medium. The in vitro raised plants were successfully transferred to soil with ~80 % survival. On the same medium, shoots could also be conserved for 12 months with high survival and genetic stability was maintained as revealed by molecular markers. The protocol optimized in the present study has been applied for culture establishment, shoot multiplication and medium-term conservation of several Bacopa germplasm, procured from different agro-ecological regions of India.
Mice infected with the polycythemia-inducing strain of Friend virus complex (FVC-P) develop a fatal erythroid disease similar in some respects to leukemia. Six- to eight-week-old DBA/2 female mice were injected i.v. with 0.5 ml of a virus suspension containing approximately 5 X 10(4) plaque-forming units and 5 X 10(3) spleen focus-forming units. Four treatment regimens were begun 3 days postinjection: (a) no treatment; (b) whole-body hyperthermia (WBH) alone; (c) cyclophosphamide (CY) alone; (d) WBH combined with CY. WBH treatment utilized a microwave generator operating at 2450 MHz. The i.p. temperature of the mice receiving WBH was maintained at 39.5-40 degrees C for 30 min. The CY was given i.p. at a dosage of 20 mg/kg of body weight. The various treatments, CY, WBH, CY + WBH were given once a week for 2 weeks. Natural killer cell activity was examined in all four groups of mice and was found to be significantly higher in the animals treated with WBH or CY. Our results show that WBH, either alone or in combination with CY, can prolong the lifespan of mice infected with lethal dosages of the FVC-P, possibly via a mechanism involving natural killer cells.
A total of 100 patients participated in the study, 46 of them were identified as users of complementary medicine. The most substances used were plants 24%, pure honey 13% and water of Zem Zem (holy water from Mecca) 11%. Concerning techniques, religious practices 37%, special diets 22% and recourse to traditional healers 11% were most commonly used. No specific user profile was observed depending of different sociodemograhics and clinical parameters. The majority of the users of complementary medicine were not revealing their habits to their oncologist because the question was not raised in consultation.