High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Novel microstructured sildenafil dosage forms as wound healing promoters.


All antihistamines tested repressed the wheal-and-flare area superbly over the placebo within 4 hours. Cetirizine exerted the fastest onset, and it also appeared to be the most efficacious inhibitor. The heterogeneity of their efficacy probably stems from their diverse physicochemical properties, which have also been discussed.

Pityriasis rosea (PR) is an acute inflammatory dermatosis. The association of human herpes virus 6 and 7 suggests the utility of use of antiviral agents in this disease.

Patients considering surgical correction of eyelid retraction for inflammatory symptoms of thyroid eye disease were offered a preoperative medical regimen of oral montelukast/cetirizine. Exclusion criteria included prior use of oral montelukast (i.e., for seasonal allergy or asthma), compressive optic neuropathy, severe ophthalmopathy requiring systemic corticosteroids, and orbital and/or muscle surgery. A 6-week course of oral cetirizine (10 mg every morning) and oral montelukast (10 mg every evening) was administered and patients subjectively rated their ocular surface dryness, tearing, itching, injection, eyelid swelling, eyelid retraction, double vision, proptosis, and visual clarity, at baseline, after 3 weeks and 6 weeks of medical therapy, and after 3 weeks off of the medications.

Taste masking of bitter active substances is an emerging area in the pharmaceutical industry especially for paediatric/geriatric medications. In this study we introduce the use of jet dispensing as a taste masking technology by printing mucosal thin films of three model bitter substances, Cetirizine HCl, Diphenylhydramine HCl and Ibuprofen. The process was used to dispense aqueous drugs/polymer solutions at very high speed where eventually the drugs were embedded in the polymer matrix. The in vivo evaluation of jet-dispensed mucosal films showed excellent taste masking for drug loadings from 20 to 40%. Jet dispensing was proved to make uniform, accurate and reproducible thin films with excellent content uniformity.

The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanisms of the inhibitory effect of a histamine H3 receptor agonist, Sch 50971, on nasal signs in an allergic rhinitis model in mice. The severity of allergic rhinitis was assessed by determining the extent of two markers of allergic symptoms (sneezing and nasal rubbing). The topical application of a histamine H3 receptor antagonist, clobenpropit, into the nasal cavities resulted in a dose-dependent increase in sneezing and nasal rubbing, and both Sch 50971 and a tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist, L-733,060, inhibited these reactions in non-sensitized mice. Sch 50971 caused no inhibition of histamine- and substance P-induced nasal symptoms; however, the reactions induced by capsaicin were significantly decreased by Sch 50971 in non-sensitized mice. Sch 50971 and cetirizine inhibited antigen-induced sneezing and nasal rubbing in sensitized mice. On the other hand, cetirizine inhibited nasal symptoms induced by antigen in capsaicin-pretreated mice, whereas no effect was observed in Sch 50971. From these results, we concluded that Sch 50971 blocked nasal symptoms by the inhibition of substance P release via histamine H3 receptors located on peri]pheral sensory nerve endings.

Urticaria is common in atopic toddlers and deserves recognition as an important disorder that occurs early in the atopic marathon. Regular long-term treatment with levocetirizine effectively prevents and treats urticaria in young children. The results of this study strengthen the evidence base for the use of relatively nonsedating, second-generation H1-antihistamines in the pediatric population.

Cetirizine 10 mg once daily was equivalent to hydroxyzine 25 mg tid in controlling the symptoms of patients with chronic urticaria, as assessed by patient and investigator evaluations.

An exposure assessment for multiple pharmaceuticals in Swedish surface waters was made using the STREAM-EU model. Results indicate that Metformin (27 ton/y), Paracetamol (6.9 ton/y) and Ibuprofen (2.33 ton/y) were the drugs with higher amounts reaching the Baltic Sea in 2011. 35 of the studied substances had more than 1 kg/y of predicted flush to the sea. Exposure potential given by the ratio amount of the drug exported to the sea/amount emitted to the environment was higher than 50% for 7 drugs (Piperacillin, Lorazepam, Metformin, Hydroxycarbamide, Hydrochlorothiazide, Furosemide and Cetirizine), implying that a high proportion of them will reach the sea, and below 10% for 27 drugs, implying high catchment attenuation. Exposure potentials were found to be dependent of persistency and hydrophobicity of the drugs. Chemicals with Log D > 2 had exposure potentials <10% regardless of their persistence. Chemicals with Log D  <  -2 had exposure potentials >35% with higher ratios typically achieved for longer half-lives. For Stockholm urban area, 17 of the 54 pharmaceuticals studied had calculated concentrations higher than 10 ng/L. Model agreement with monitored values had an r(2) = 0.62 for predicted concentrations and an r(2) = 0.95 for predicted disposed amounts to sea.