High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Nonconvulsive status epilepticus and neurodevelopmental delay.


Prolactin (PRL) may be a growth factor for breast cancer. Abnormally high levels of PRL have been proven to be associated with a poor prognosis in metastatic breast cancer. However, most studies have been limited to the evaluation of basal levels of PRL rather than its response to the classical endocrine dynamic tests. This study was performed to analyse the dynamic secretion of PRL under stimulatory and inhibitory tests in metastatic breast cancer.

Healthcare professionals should train caregivers during hospital visits, empowering them to manage acute symptoms and provide simple nursing care. This is doubly important in countries where resources are limited and palliative care facilities scarce.

Small-bowel biopsy is a well-established technique in the evaluation of children with intestinal malabsorption, e.g. coeliac disease. The biopsy is performed endoscopically or with a peroral capsule instrument. The aim of the present retrospective study was to compare the single-port Watson capsule with the double-port Storz capsule with regard to procedure and fluoroscopy time, complications and failure rate.

To compare the prevalence of hyperprolactinemia and its clinical symptoms in three groups: (1) patients with schizophrenia treated with risperidone, (2) those treated with olanzapine and (3) the control group.

It is concluded that the differences in the results of occurrence of PONV in the experimental group and control group are not statistically significant. However either Prochloperazine 0.1 - 0.2 mg kg(-1) or metoclopramide 0.1 - 0.2 mg kg(-1) can be safely administered as Prophylactic antiemetic till the availability of more efficacious and safe antiemetic drugs.

AS-924 is an oral prodrug of the antibiotic ceftizoxime (CTIZ), a parenteral use cephalosporin. This novel prodrug, produced by esterifying CTIZ with a lipophilic pivaloyloxymethyl (POM) group and introducing a water soluble L-alanyl group, is expected to increase the bioavailability and thereby, augment the antibacterial activity of CTIZ in vivo compared with existing prodrugs. To study the effect of the L-alanyl group in AS-924 on its bioavailability, the plasma concentration profiles of CTIZ in dogs were examined following the dosing of AS-924 and CTIZ-POM, in powder form, after pretreatment with the antacid ranitidine, and following the dosing of AS-924 after pretreatment with a gastrointestinal motility stimulant metoclopramide or suppressant scopolamine butylbromide. The absorption rate of AS-924 was constant under these different conditions due to its unique balance of lipophilicity and water solubility. CTIZ is as antibacterially active as pre-existing oral cephalosporins against Gram-positive clinical isolates, while being more active against all Gram-negative isolates-particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Haemophilus influenzae. A simulation model for the eradication profile of bacteria in computer programmed pharmacokinetic (PK) system was carried out to study the antibacterial action of CTIZ in human. CTIZ was proven to eradicate Streptococcus pneumoniae and H. influenzae effectively, while cefpodoxime (CPOD), the active moiety of CPOD proxetil, eradicated S. pneumoniae, but not H. influenzae. These results confirm that, AS-924 is a potent oral antibiotic and would be expected to be clinically effective and efficient.

Combinations of drugs have become standard therapy for the prevention of vomiting caused by anticancer drugs like cisplatin. Recently, a new class of antiemetic agents, the potent and specific 5-HT3 receptor antagonists such as ondansetron, granisetron, and tropisetron, have been shown to be more effective and better tolerated than metoclopramide. This report describes the rationale for combination antiemetic therapy, details the testing of metoclopramide-based regimens as a model for combination therapy development, reviews completed trials of ondansetron plus dexamethasone, and offers strategies to further alleviate vomiting during anticancer chemotherapy. The reported trials testing metoclopramide-based combinations were reviewed and that experience was applied to the ongoing studies of ondansetron when used with dexamethasone and other agents. Combinations of metoclopramide, dexamethasone, and lorazepam prevented acute emesis caused by high-dose cisplatin in 63% of patients, lessened side effects, and were convenient enough to administer to outpatients. Completed trials of ondansetron and dexamethasone demonstrated improved vomiting control over ondansetron alone while using less cumbersome schedules. Attempts to improve ondansetron-based antiemetic regimens by developing optimal drug doses and schedules and adding adjuvant and different classes of antiemetic agents are now in clinical testing. Based on previous experience and current results, combinations of a specific serotonin agonist and dexamethasone are the best treatment for prevention of vomiting induced by chemotherapy. Future clinical research should aim to refine antiemetic regimens and improve emetic control through the use of new antiemetic and adjuvant agents.