High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Medicinal properties of fractionated acetone/water neem [Azadirachta indica] leaf extract from Nigeria: a review.


Seven analogs of methyl-2 [chloro-4' benzoyl)-4 phenoxy]-2 propionic acid, (LF 153) have been tested for their effects on respiration and phosphorylation of rat liver mitochondria suspensions. They differ from one another by the sort of binding between both aromatic cycle as well as by the nature and position of the halogenated substitutions and alpha methylation in the propionic chain. All the compounds which have been tested acted as inhibitors of the electron transport chain and uncouplers of phosphorylations.

Nanoparticles of poorly water-soluble drugs were prepared in suspension via antisolvent precipitation in order to improve their dissolution behaviour. Insoluble, surface-functionalized, micron-range, clay carrier particles were employed for the dual purpose of stabilizing the nanoparticles in suspended state, and facilitating their unhindered isolation to solid state; often a challenging step in nanoparticle production. The carrier particles, which were functionalized with an optimal level of cationic polymer (protamine), attracted negatively-charged nanoparticles to their surface as a uniform and segregated nanoparticle layer, at drug loadings up to 9% w/w. By using carrier particles to stabilise the nanoparticles on their surface, the traditionally used solubilised nanosuspension stabilisers could be eliminated, thus avoiding time-consuming stabiliser screening tests. The carrier particle system facilitated stabilisation of nanoparticles in suspension, isolation of nanoparticles to the solid state via filtration, and preservation of fast nanoparticle-induced dissolution rates of the dried nanoparticle-carrier composites, indicating preservation of their high surface area during drying. The process was validated with two poorly water-soluble BCS Class II drugs, fenofibrate and mefenamic acid, both of which demonstrated negative surface charge in aqueous suspension.

After 12 months total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (Tg) decreased while HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) increased in all groups, even if the values obtained with fenofibrate + simvastatin were the best. At the end of the study apolipoprotein A-1 (Apo A-1) increased with fenofibrate + simvastatin, while apolipoprotein B (Apo B) decreased in all groups compared to baseline. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) decreased after 12 months compared to baseline with simvastatin, and with fenofibrate + simvastatin even if the value obtained with fenofibrate-simvastatin was the lowest. After 12 months, fibrinogen (Fg) decreased compared to baseline with fenofibrate + simvastatin.

The presence of pharmaceuticals and other wastewater-derived micropollutants in surface and groundwaters is receiving intense public and scientific attention. Yet simple GC/MS methods that would enable measurement of a wide range of such compounds are scarce. This paper describes a GC/MS method for the simultaneous determination of 13 pharmaceuticals (acetaminophen, albuterol, allopurinol, amitriptyline, brompheniramine, carbamazepine, carisoprodol, ciclopirox, diazepam, fenofibrate, metoprolol, primidone, and terbinafine) and 5 wastewater-derived contaminants (caffeine, diethyltoluamide, n-butylbenzene sulfonamide, n-nonylphenol, and n-octylphenol) by solid phase extraction (SPE) and derivatization with BSTFA. The method was applied to the analysis of raw and treated sewage samples obtained from a wastewater treatment plant located in the mid-Atlantic United States. All analytes were detected in untreated sewage, and 14 of the 18 analytes were detected in treated sewage.

Based on this exploratory analysis, it seems that Lipanthyl treatment in middle-aged patients resulted in a cost saving due to the prevention of cardiovascular events when it was used in the treatment of type 2 diabetics, as in the FIELD study. It should therefore be considered to be cost effective, even when just the cardiovascular risk reduction effect is considered.

Hyperlipidemia is implicated as the cause for coronary heart diseases. Though varieties of synthetic drugs are used in the treatment, still the searches are on for better medicaments especially from the plant kingdom. Many medicinal plants have been studied in this context but most of them are seasonal or have restricted availability. One such weed, available throughout the year is Salvadora oleoides (decne.).

The study was focused to the influence of higher intake of cholesterol on properties of the renal Na,K-ATPase, a key system in maintaining the homeostasis of sodium in the organism. Feeding for 4 weeks with cholesterol-enriched food for rats afflicted with hereditary hypertriglyceridemia by itself enhanced the activity of Na,K-ATPase, probably as a consequence of higher number of active enzyme molecules as suggested by 32 % increase of V (max) value. This may be hypothesized as a reason for the increased retention of sodium. Three-week-lasting treatment of animals kept on high cholesterol diet with antioxidant SMe1EC2 in a dose of 10 mg kg(-1) day(-1) normalized the function of renal Na,K-ATPase to the level comparable in hypertriglyceridemic rats fed with the standard diet. Therefore, our results suggest that the antioxidant SMe1EC2 in the applied dose seems to be effective in the attenuation of cholesterol-induced retention of sodium. Treatment for 3 weeks with Fenofibrate in a dose of 100 mg kg(-1) day(-1) reversed the function of renal Na,K-ATPase only slightly.