High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Medical management of hyperthyroidism.


Although cardiovascular complications such as Aortic syndrome (Takayasu's aortitis), Pericarditis and Myopericarditis might not be common, these complications should be noted as one of the fatal manifestation of IBD. It can be the sole or one of the several extraintestinal manifestation of either ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. Because of the therapeutic implications, we reviewed the literature documenting cardiovascular complication associated with ulcerative colitis. The comparatively high prevalence of Takayasu's aortitis with ulcerative colitis in Japanese patients may be explained by a immune genetic influence. HLA-B52 and DR2, were highly expressed in the patient with both disease. Myopericarditis and Pleuropericarditis associated with IBD were divided into two groups by pathogenesis, 1) drug (5-ASA)-induced disease, and 2) autoimmune disease. The cardiovascular symptom may occur while the patient's gastrointestinal disease is quiescent.

In the 4-year period 1980-83 sclerosing cholangitis was demonstrated in 7 out of 151 patients with ulcerative colitis hospitalized in our department. Total ulcerative colitis was demonstrated in all patients with sclerosing cholangitis, whereas abnormal pancreatograms compatible with chronic pancreatitis were seen in four of these patients. According to the criteria of Kasugai, one had minimal, two moderate, and one advanced changes of chronic pancreatitis. Although three of four patients had been treated with drugs known to induce pancreatitis (sulfasalazine and corticosteroids), it is tempting to assume that ulcerative colitis, sclerosing cholangitis, and pancreatitis, when seen in combination, are manifestations of autoimmune diseases with a genetic predisposition. A mechanical mechanism for the development of chronic pancreatitis in sclerosing cholangitis must also be considered.

The clinical characteristics of ERA can facilitate an early diagnosis so as to avoid joint damage and disabilities.

5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), the presumed active moiety of sulfasalazine, has shown clinical efficacy when administered per rectum as initial therapy to patients with distal ulcerative colitis. We report the results of a randomized double-blind trial comparing nightly retention of a 4-g 5-ASA enema with continued administration of hydrocortisone enemas in 18 patients with persistent active distal ulcerative colitis after at least a 3-wk course of treatment with 100-mg hydrocortisone enemas with or without oral sulfasalazine. Continuation of hydrocortisone enemas rather than placebo was used in the control group to reflect the realistic alternative therapy likely to be employed in current practice. Response to therapy was assessed after 3 wk by comparing pretreatment and posttreatment point scores of clinical, sigmoidoscopic, and histological severity. Improvement in clinical score was achieved in seven of nine 5-ASA enema-treated patients versus one of nine hydrocortisone enema-treated patients (p less than 0.05). Sigmoidoscopic and histological improvement generally paralleled clinical improvement. We conclude that in patients with distal ulcerative colitis unresponsive to standard therapy, treatment with 5-ASA enemas results in significant short-term clinical and sigmoidoscopic improvement in a majority of cases. Moreover, a significantly greater number of refractory patients improve when switched to 5-ASA enemas than when continued on standard therapy.

All patients were treated with sulfasalzine at initial doses of 1.5 g/day, increasing by 0.5 g/week to 3 g/day for 4-16 weeks. Some patients also received descendent doses for 2-12 months. Complete responses were observed in 13 patients and partial responses in seven patients. All patients reported an early resolution of the pruritus. No changes were detected in mucosal LP. Most of the patients tolerated the treatment well and only eight patients presented some minor side-effects.

We performed an association study of six subjects with SASP-induced DRESS, 30 SASP-tolerant patients and 283 general subjects from the human MHC database, all of whom are Han Chinese.

Sulfasalazine, a drug common in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, may cause liver damage. We present a patient with documented granulomatous hepatitis which resolved on liver biopsy 6 weeks after discontinuation of the drug.

Curcumin could modulate the expressions of IL-1beta and IL-10 mRNA in murine model of IBD, which suggests the potential of curcumin as a targeted therapeutic agent for IBD.

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is a common cause of febrile arthritis. The most common manifestations of acute infection are fever, symmetrical polyarthralgias or polyarthritis, myalgias, and maculopapular rash. Up to 80% of patients may develop musculoskeletal manifestations that persist longer than 3 months, causing impairment in their quality of life. The most common chronic manifestations are persistent or relapsing-remitting polyarthralgias, polyarthritis, and myalgias. Fingers, wrists, knees, ankles, and toes are the most frequently involved, but proximal joints and axial involvement can occur in the chronic stage. Chronic manifestations of CHIKV infection may resemble those of some autoimmune connective tissue diseases. Furthermore, CHIKV infection can cause cryoglobulinemia and may induce rheumatoid arthritis and seronegative spondyloarthropathies in genetically susceptible individuals. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend acetaminophen and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the acute rheumatic manifestations of CHIKV infection. However, some studies suggest that low-dose corticosteroids for about 1-2 months (depending on clinical course) are beneficial in relieving acute rheumatic symptoms. Conversely, hydroxychloroquine in combination with corticosteroids or other disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) has been successful in treating chronic rheumatic manifestations. Methotrexate and sulfasalazine (alone or in combination) have also been effective for chronic CHIKV arthritis. Patients with CHIKV infection should be closely monitored to identify those with chronic arthritis who would benefit from a rheumatologic evaluation and early treatment with DMARDs.