High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Inhibitory effects of sildenafil citrate on the tonus of isolated dog internal anal sphincter.


We investigated single dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin in eight venovenous haemodialysis patients.

A new pharmacodynamic parameter, the composite recovery time (CRT), is described and used to calculate species-specific MIC breakpoints. Moxifloxacin data were used for illustration. This required determination of MICs, kill curves and post-antibiotic sub-MIC effect values. Thirteen test isolates included Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The concentration at which the CRT equals the dosing interval is the minimum effective concentration, and is effectively the breakpoint. The breakpoints were calculated as 2 mg/L for the pneumococci and quinolone-susceptible H. influenzae isolate, 1 mg/L for staphylococci and 0.5 mg/L for Enterobacteriaceae. Calculated pharmacodynamic breakpoints were very similar to traditional published MIC breakpoints.

Doxorubicin acutely prolonged the QT interval in guinea-pig heart by selective I(Ks) blockade. This effect was prevented by dexrazoxane. This result is important because it illustrates the danger of neglecting I(Ks) in favour of hERG screening alone, for early preclinical testing for possible induction of torsade de pointes.

Repeatability of QTc decreases after meal was significantly (p<0.0000001) poorer than that of heart rate increases after meal. Of the subjects receiving moxifloxacin during the study, 6% did not show QTc prolongation on moxifloxacin while 39% have not shown QTc shortening after lunch (p<0.00001).

All tested fluoroquinolones were highly active against H. influenzae. The MIC90 values were 0.016 microg/mL for gatifloxacin and ciprofloxacin and 0.031 microg/mL for moxifloxacin and ofloxacin. The MPC90 values were 0.125 microg/mL for gatifloxacin and 0.5 microg/mL for moxifloxacin, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin.

This prospective, non-interventional, multicentre study included out-patients with AECB whose last exacerbation was treated with a macrolide. The current AECB was treated either with moxifloxacin or with one of the macrolides azithromycin, clarithromycin or roxithromycin. Data were obtained on the patient's characteristics, disease and treatment history, the course of the current AECB including time to improvement and cure, and the final assessments of efficacy and tolerability. All adverse events were recorded in patients treated with moxifloxacin; for patients receiving macrolides, only drug-related adverse events were reported.

Resolution of keratitis and healing of ulcer, time to cure, mean time to discharge, clinical sign score, adverse reactions to study medication, and treatment failures.

M. abscessus is naturally susceptible to clarithromycin and amikacin, variably susceptible to cefoxitin and imipenem, and resistant to most other antimicrobial drugs. Combination therapy with clarithromycin, amikacin and other active antimicrobial agents may lead to clinical improvement; however, the rate of treatment failure is still high.

Fluoroquinolones are the most commonly prescribed antibiotic class in the outpatient setting. Recent reports have implicated an association between oral fluoroquinolones and an increased risk of uveitis.

Infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae place a considerable personal and economic burden on both patients and healthcare systems. As the resistance of S. pneumoniae to older antimicrobial agents such as penicillin, cephalosporins, and macrolides has increased, new antimicrobials with good activity against S. pneumoniae have been developed. The newer fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin, gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin provide a safe and easy tool in the treatment of S. pneumoniae infections. However, there have been recent reports of levofloxacin-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics can be used to determine which fluoroquinolone delivers the best coverage against S. pneumoniae, and also the 24-h AUC/MIC ratio (the AUIC) required to impede the emergence of bacterial resistance. Monte Carlo analysis suggests that moxifloxacin, with 4-8-fold greater activity and higher AUIC against S. pneumoniae than levofloxacin or gatifloxacin, provides the best coverage in terms of probability of cure and probability of minimizing emergence of resistance.

To report the clinical manifestations, risk factors, and treatments of microsporidial epithelial keratitis in Thailand.

The in vitro activities of the novel des-fluoro(6) quinolone BMS-284756, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin were tested against 248 genetically defined Staphylococcus aureus isolates, comprised of 116 unrelated S. aureus, seven heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hetero-VISA) strains and 125 clonally related MRSA. All strains were susceptible to BMS-284756 at an investigational breakpoint of 1 mg/L. Reserpine did not decrease the MIC of BMS-284756 in any of the strains tested. The novel des-fluoro(6) quinolone BMS-284756 showed a significantly increased anti-staphylococcal activity.