High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

In utero exposure of female CD-1 Mice to AZT and/or 3TC: I. Persistence of microscopic lesions in cardiac tissue.


Guidelines for atrial fibrillation (AF) recommend clopidogrel plus aspirin as an alternative stroke prevention strategy in patients in whom warfarin is unsuitable. A Markov model was conducted from a Medicare prospective using data from the Atrial Fibrillation Clopidogrel Trial with Irbesartan for Prevention of Vascular Events-A (ACTIVE-A) trial and other published studies. Base-case analysis evaluated patients 65 years old with AF, a CHADS(2) (congestive heart failure, 1 point; hypertension defined as blood pressure consistently >140/90 mm Hg or antihypertension medication, 1 point; age ≥75 years, 1 point; diabetes mellitus, 1 point; previous stroke or transient ishemic attack, 2 points) score of 2, and a lower risk for major bleeding. Patients received clopidogrel 75 mg/day plus aspirin or aspirin alone. Patients were followed for up to 35 years. Outcomes included quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs (in 2011 American dollars), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Quality-adjusted life expectancy and costs were 9.37 QALYs and $88,751 with clopidogrel plus aspirin and 9.01 QALYs and $79,057 with aspirin alone. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for clopidogrel plus aspirin was $26,928/QALY. With 1-way sensitivity analysis using a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000/QALY, clopidogrel plus aspirin was no longer cost effective when the CHADS(2) score was ≤1, major bleeding risk with aspirin was ≥2.50%/patient-year, the relative risk decrease for ischemic stroke with clopidogrel plus aspirin versus aspirin alone was <25%, and the utility of being healthy with AF on combination therapy decreased to 0.95. Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated that clopidogrel plus aspirin was cost effective in 55% and 73% of 10,000 iterations assuming willingness-to-pay thresholds of $50,000 and $100,000/QALY. In conclusion, clopidogrel plus aspirin appears cost-effective compared to aspirin alone for stroke prevention in patients with AF with a CHADS(2) of ≥2 and a lower risk of bleeding.

Patients with ischemic stroke enrolled in the Management of Atherothrombosis With Clopidogrel in High-Risk Patients (MATCH) study underwent long-term prospective assessment of their modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score. Disability (functionally dependent state) was defined as mRS > or = 3, and recovery (functionally independent state) was defined as mRS < 3. The timing and the independent predictors of recovery were determined using a Cox proportional hazards multiple regression analysis.

This study was designed to determine whether CES1A -816A/C polymorphism could be associated with altered clopidogrel response. Recruited patients were pretreated with 300 mg clopidogrel loading dose before undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for stenting and genotyped with CYP2C19 *2, *3, or *17, and CES1A -816A/C, respectively. Adenosine diphosphate-induced maximum platelet aggregation (MPA) was determined on day 3 after initiation of daily clopidogrel maintenance doses. The clinical primary end point was the 1-year incidence of definite stent thrombosis (ST). Multivariable linear regression revealed that the CES1A -816A/C polymorphism was independently associated with MPA measures with an absolute β value of 6.76. Of 617 patients, a subcohort of 249 patients not carrying CYP2C19 *2, *3, or *17 were categorized into 3 groups based on the -816A/C genotype. The median MPA value was lower in 125 carriers of the -816C variant than in 124 noncarriers (21.5% vs. 31.7%, P = 0.001). The 1-year definite ST occurred in 7 patients in that subcohort, and only 1 ST case was one of carriers of the -816 A/A that was associated with higher MPA values. The CES1A -816C would be used to predict greater platelet response to clopidogrel than the CES1A -816A in percutaneous coronary intervention-treated patients not carrying CYP2C19 variants.

Ninety-seven eyes were included for analysis. Twenty-seven eyes remained on anticoagulation during the surgery. There were no perioperative complications related to the anticoagulation. Surgical intervention resulted in a significant increase in visual acuity in both groups. There was no difference in the incidence of postoperative vitreous hemorrhage or surgical reoperation between the two groups. Patients on anticoagulation had significantly worse postoperative vision compared with those not on anticoagulation (best-corrected visual acuity of 20/230 vs. 20/100, P = 0.03).

Histories of aspirin reactions in patients with CAD are uncommon, occurring in only 1.5% of our study population. The 21% of patients with histories compatible with aspirin hypersensitivities can be challenged and, if the results are positive, successfully desensitized. Moreover, almost all patients with gastric intolerance to aspirin can be treated with aspirin and a proton pump inhibitor. However, both approaches, which result in restoration of cardiovascular prophylaxis, were seriously underused in our study population.

The aim was to investigate the beneficial effects of clopidogrel in thoracic aorta function and structure and to characterize if P2Y12 receptors contribute to these effects. Male Sprague Dawley rats were infused with angiotensin II [(Ang II) 60 ng x min(-1), 14 days] or saline (control rats) and were simultaneously treated with clopidogrel (10 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1)) or vehicle. After 14 days, systolic blood pressure (mmHg) was similar in Ang II-hypertensive rats treated with clopidogrel or vehicle (199±9 vs. 190±11, respectively). Systolic blood pressure in control rats was not altered by clopidogrel treatment (128±1 vs. vehicle, 134±2). Endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by 2-MeS-ADP was decreased in aortas from vehicle-treated Ang II-hypertensive rats, compared to vehicle-treated control rats. This response was elicited via activation of P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors. In the presence of L-NAME and indomethacin, 2-MeS-ADP induced contraction and this response was augmented in vehicle-treated Ang II-hypertensive rats, compared to vehicle-treated control rats. The contraction to 2-MeS-ADP was evoked by P2Y13 and P2Y12 receptor activation. Clopidogrel-treatment did not normalize relaxation or contractile responses induced by 2-MeS-ADP in aortas from Ang II-hypertensive rats. P2Y1 and P2Y12 protein expression was increased, whereas P2Y13 receptor expression was reduced in aorta from vehicle-treated Ang II-hypertensive rats. Endothelium-dependent relaxation upon acetylcholine-stimulation was reduced in vehicle-treated Ang II-hypertensive rats, and clopidogrel treatment was effective in improving endothelial function. Clopidogrel also prevented vascular remodeling, evidenced by augmented media thickness in aortas from Ang II-hypertensive rats. Clopidogrel has beneficial effects on the aortic endothelium of Ang II-hypertensive rats, but its effects do not seem to be directly related to the presence of P2Y12 receptors in this vessel.