High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

[Genetic characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from ready-to-eat food and pig-related sources in China].


Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) has been associated with increased cardiovascular risk when untreated or when normal LDL-C concentrations are not reached. Some patients with FH do not reach LDL-C goals despite intensive combination therapy.

Ezetimibe alone and in combination with simvastatin reduced the concentration of atherogenic sdLDL in patients with type 2 diabetes.

One of the major risk factors for ischemic disease is hyperlipidemia, which is mainly regulated by endogenous cholesterol synthesis in the liver and dietary absorption in the small intestine. In this study, we evaluated the vascular protective effects of a potent cholesterol absorption inhibitor, ezetimibe. ApoE-deficient mice were fed a chow or high-fat diet with or without ezetimibe (5mg/(kgday)) for 3 months. Co-treatment with ezetimibe significantly reduced plasma cholesterol (by 76%; from 1592 to 381mg/dL) and LDL cholesterol (by 78%; from 1515 to 319mg/dL), and increased HDL cholesterol (by 187%; from 16 to 46mg/dL) in high-fat diet mice. Consistently, a marked inhibitory effect of ezetimibe on the development of lipid-rich plaque was observed, as assessed by oil red O staining. Of importance, treatment with ezetimibe significantly improved endothelial dysfunction as assessed by the vasodilator response to acetylcholine, accompanied by inhibition of interleukin-6 mRNA and an increase in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mRNA in the aorta. Ezetimibe also suppressed oxidative stress and the ubiquitination-proteasome system in the aorta. Although changes in body weight and several tissue weights were similar in the groups with and without ezetimibe administration, only liver weight was significantly decreased in the ezetimibe-treated group. Interestingly, ezetimibe markedly inhibited lipid accumulation in the liver. Furthermore, ezetimibe increased the mRNA expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl co-enzyme A (HMG-CoA) synthase as a counteraction in the liver, but not in the aorta. Overall, ezetimibe significantly prevented atherosclerosis through not only lipid-lowering effects, but also other direct and/or indirect vascular protective actions in ApoE-deficient mice.

Inhibition of virus entry has become a major concept in the development of new antiviral drugs. Entry inhibitors can either neutralize activities of viral surface proteins or target essential host factors such as (co)receptors. Due to its distinct tissue tropism and the highly specific viral and cellular factors involved in its entry, hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an ideal candidate for entry inhibition. Hepatitis B immunoglobulins neutralize infection by binding to the S-domain of HBV surface proteins and are used to prevent reinfection of the graft after liver transplantation. Novel S or preS-specific monoclonal antibodies are currently in development. The identification of sodium-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) as a bona fide receptor has revealed a suitable target for HBV entry inhibition. NTCP receptor function is blocked by a variety of different agents including Myrcludex B, a synthetic N-acylated preS1-derived lipopeptide that inhibits HBV entry in vitro and in vivo with high efficacy. Current antiviral treatment for chronic HBV-infected patients focuses on the inhibition of the viral polymerase via nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA). Entry inhibitors in combination with NAs could block reinfection and shield naive hepatocytes that emerge from natural liver turnover, opening up new therapeutic options.

Combination of BAS (especially colesevelam) with fenofibrate had additional effects on metabolic parameters in patients with mixed hyperlipidemia. Combination of ezetimibe with fenofibrate may be a useful approach to improve the overall lipid profile of patients with mixed hyperlipidemia. There is a further reduction in triglyceride levels when n-3 fatty acids are administered with fenofibrate in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia. Combined fenofibrate and orlistat treatment further improves metabolic parameters in overweight/obese patients with metabolic syndrome. The fenofibrate/thiazolidinedione combination is an alternative for diabetic patients intolerant to statins, though differences exist between pioglitazone and rosiglitazone.

Evolocumab markedly reduces atherogenic lipoproteins in patients with type 2 diabetes, an effect that is consistent across subgroups and similar to that seen in patients without type 2 diabetes. Results from ongoing cardiovascular outcome trials of PCSK9 inhibitors will provide additional data to inform the use of these drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Thirty-six patients were randomized to simvastatin 80 mg daily (S80, n = 19) or ezetimibe 10 mg and simvastatin 10 mg daily (E10/S10, n = 17) for 6 weeks. Skin microvascular function was assessed by laser Doppler fluxmetry (LDF) at rest, following arterial occlusion (peak postocclusive LDF) and following local heating on the forearm (heat arm LDF) and foot (heat foot LDF). LDF parameters and serum lipids were evaluated at baseline and follow-up.