Finasteride. A review of its potential in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
With co-amoxiclav, bactericidal activity (>3 log(10) reduction) was obtained against the susceptible (MIC < or = 8/4 mg/L) and intermediate (MIC = 16/8 mg/L) strains from 3 to 12 h, and from 3 to 10 h against the resistant strains (MIC > or = 32/16 mg/L), which exhibited a 2 log(10) reduction at 12 h. With norfloxacin, bactericidal activity was obtained against the susceptible strains from 4 to 12 h and from 8 to 12 h against the resistant strain with an MIC of 32 mg/L. Regrowth, with respect to initial inocula, occurred from 8 h onwards with the strain with MIC = 64 mg/L and from 3 h onwards with the strain with MIC = 256 mg/L.
Enterococcus faecalis may contribute to periodontal breakdown in heavily infected subgingival sites, particularly in patients responding poorly to mechanical forms of periodontal therapy. Because only limited data are available on the antimicrobial sensitivity of enterococci of subgingival origin, this study evaluates the in vitro antibiotic susceptibility of E. faecalis isolated from periodontitis patients in the United States.
Once-daily iv/oral moxifloxacin monotherapy was clinically and bacteriologically non-inferior to iv TZP thrice daily followed by oral AMC twice daily in patients with cSSSIs.
A total of 52 isolates were investigated, representing an 18-month time period. Fifty of these were positive by Vitek. Twenty-eight (56%) were confirmed by other methods (true positives). Of the 44% Vitek-positive/confirmatory test-negative (false positives), eight were Escherichia coli which was 53% of all E. coli tested. The majority of other false-positive isolates were Klebsiella oxytoca (24% overall) which were all Vitek- and Etest-positive but negative by the combination disc test.
Patients were randomly divided into treatment (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid for 7 days) and placebo groups. To evaluate treatment efficacy, severity of clinical signs (based on a newly developed HGE index), duration of hospitalization, and mortality rate were compared between the 2 groups.
The rate of SSI was 10.9%, with all of the infections being of the deep incisional type. A discriminant analysis and multiple logistic regression methods identified pre-surgical tracheostomy (p < 0.001), previous surgery (p = 0.001) and length of pre-operative hospital stay (p < 0.001) as the most significant risk factors for surgical site infections.
Oral microbiological swabs were taken from patients while they were on the operating table just before surgery.
The bacteriology and antimicrobial susceptibility of maxillary sinus aspirates from 81 patients were evaluated.
Intranasal resorbable packing, such as Nasopore, is commonly used during sinus surgery despite a paucity of evidence that demonstrates clinical benefit. We theorized that Nasopore supports bacterial growth and biofilm formation. The DNABII family of bacterial nucleic acid binding proteins stabilizes the extracellular polymeric substance of the biofilm, thus protecting bacteria from host defenses and traditional antibiotics. We tested the hypothesis that use of anti-IHF antibodies in conjunction with antibiotics would enhance biofilm eradication from Nasopore.
Depending on the hospital and according to local protocols, hysteroscopy was performed with or without antibiotic prophylaxis.
An imputed intention-to-treat analysis of 414 patients showed that the postoperative infection rates were 17% (35 of 207) in the nontreatment group and 15% (31 of 207) in the antibiotic group (absolute difference, 1.93%; 95% CI, -8.98% to 5.12%). In the per-protocol analysis, which involved 338 patients, the corresponding rates were both 13% (absolute difference, 0.3%; 95% CI, -5.0% to 6.3%). Based on a noninferiority margin of 11%, the lack of postoperative antibiotic treatment was not associated with worse outcomes than antibiotic treatment. Bile cultures showed that 60.9% were pathogen free. Both groups had similar Clavien complication severity outcomes: 195 patients (94.2%) in the nontreatment group had a score of 0 to I and 2 patients (0.97%) had a score of III to V, and 182 patients (87.8%) in the antibiotic group had a score of 0 to I and 4 patients (1.93%) had a score of III to V.
We report on the first recorded outbreak of cholera in Namibia. From December 2006 to February 2007, more than 250 cases of cholera were reported from the Omusati and Kunene provinces of Namibia. However, only nine bacterial isolates were obtainable for analysis. Isolates were all identified as Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Inaba biotype El Tor. All isolates were susceptible to ampicillin, augmentin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, kanamycin, imipenem, ceftriaxone and ceftazidime; and they all showed resistance to trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole and streptomycin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of bacteria incorporating either SfiI or NotI digestion revealed an identical fingerprint pattern for all isolates. These data together with results indicating identical antimicrobial susceptibility profiles for all isolates determined that the outbreak was caused by a single strain of V. cholerae.