High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Factors influencing the performance level of Candida mannan antigen testing in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients not receiving fluconazole prophylaxis.


It has been shown that fluctuations in neurosteroid synthesis, such as those seen in response to stress or during the ovarian cycle, determine an increase in seizure threshold. Moreover, increased neurosteroid synthesis, presumably occurring in glial cells during epileptogenesis, delays the appearance of recurrent spontaneous seizures in an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy; such an effect may be due to augmented tonic gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor-mediated inhibition. Finally, clinical trials with ganaxolone, an allopregnanolone analogue, have demonstrated beneficial effects in pharmacoresistant epileptic patients, whereas finasteride--which interferes with neurosteroid synthesis - facilitates seizures in catamenial epilepsy.

We could not find any significant associations of the genetic polymorphisms of these two isoenzyme genes with androgenetic alopecia in Koreans (P>0.05). These polymorphisms were not associated with the clinical types of baldness or the response to finasteride (P>0.05).

Only maximal reported frequencies are presented in this abstract. With prolonged-release alfuzosin, they were 2.8% vs. 1.3% for erectile dysfunction, compared to placebo and 1% vs. 0% for ejaculatory dysfunction. With doxazosin, the incidence was 5.8% vs. 3.3% for erectile dysfunction, 3.6% vs. 1.9% for reduced libido and 0.4% vs. 1.4% for ejaculatory disorders. The incidence of ejaculatory disorders with tamsulosin, was 11% vs. <1% with the placebo and with silodosin, it was 28.1% vs. 1.1%. With finasteride, at 12 months, the highest frequency was 9% vs. 5% for erectile dysfunction, 4.4% vs. 1.5% for ejaculatory disorders and 6.4% vs. 3.4% for reduced libido. At 24 months, for dutatsteride, frequencies were 7.3% vs. 4.0% for erectile dysfunction, 2.2% vs. 0.8% for ejaculatory disorders and 4.2% vs. 2.1% for reduced libido. For tadalafil, a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, and tolerodine, an anticholinergic drug, no negative effect on ejaculation or libido has been reported. For plant extracts, no sexual adverse effects (AEs) were reported among the most common AEs.

Reduction in hair growth.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of finasteride (10 mg/d) or placebo on serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and recurrence rates in men with detectable PSA levels after radical prostatectomy.

The combination treatment of Serenoa repens and tamsulosin was shown to be more effective than tamsulosin monotherapy in reducing storage symptoms in BPH patients after 6 months and up to 12 months of treatment.

Four different equi-molar mixtures were investigated for additive endocrine disrupting effects in vitro using the concentration addition model. It was found that additive effects on the same molecular target (the androgen receptor; AR) can be predicted for both mixtures of compounds with effect on the AR (flutamide, procymidone and vinclozolin) and of compounds with and without effects on the AR [finasteride, mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, prochloraz and vinclozolin]. For a paraben mixture (methyl paraben, ethyl paraben, propyl paraben, butyl paraben and iso-butyl paraben) antagonistic effect on AR could not be predicted under assumption of additivity in our model system. For a mixture containing three azole fungicides (epoxiconazole, propiconazole and tebuconazole), the observed AR antagonistic effects were close to the predicted effect assuming additivity. Azole fungicides are known inhibitors of androgen biosynthesis and in the steroid synthesis assay using H295R cells, the inhibition of testosterone production was close to additive, whereas the inhibition of oestradiol production was over-estimated for the mixture of azole fungicides, when compared with the effect predicted when assuming additivity. Overall these and other studies show that weak endocrine disrupting compounds, like parabens and azole fungicides, give rise to combination effects when they occur in mixtures. These combination effects should be taken into account in regulatory risk assessment not to under-estimate the risks for adverse effects associated with exposure to disrupting chemicals.

Although the general approach to management of a sufficient degree of benign prostatic hyperplasia in the past was surgical intervention (transurethral resection of the prostate), the current availability of effective pharmacologic therapy has changed the initial management strategy. At present, two types of drugs are available for treatment of prostatism: (1) selective alpha-adrenergic blocking agents (terazosin, doxazosin, and tamsulosin) and (2) an inhibitor of the 5 alpha-reductase enzyme (finasteride). Pharmacologic blockade of the alpha(1)-adrenoceptors is thought to result in relaxation of the smooth muscle in the prostate and bladder neck, which reduces urethral resistance, improves voiding function, and minimizes the symptoms of prostatism. These effects may be noted by the patient within several weeks after initiation of treatment. The mechanism of action of finasteride is a blocking of the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone and an associated volume shrinkage of the prostate. On the average, a 25% reduction in prostate volume can be achieved, but a period of 12 months or longer of finasteride therapy is needed for maximal shrinkage and maximal decrease in symptoms of prostatism. The expanding population of middle-aged and elderly men with prostatism of moderate severity will undoubtedly prompt the development of additional pharmacologic options for treatment of prostatism and benign prostatic hyperplasia.