High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Efficacy of Vinblastine and Prednisone in Multicentric Reticulohistiocytosis With Onset in Infancy.


We performed a retrospective study from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2009 at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Switzerland, comparing patients with community-acquired versus healthcare-associated UTIs due to ESBL-producing E. coli. Additionally, we investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates.

Alternating norfloxacin- and rifaximin-based primary prophylaxis for SBP showed higher efficacy with the same safety profile when compared with monotherapy of norfloxacin.

Thirty patients with acute urethritis were treated with short-term administration of norfloxacin. The drug was administered randomly in two regimens: Two 400 mg oral doses for a single day or three 200 mg oral doses for three days. For gonorrheal urethritis, the efficacy rates of one and three-day administrations were 75 and 90%, respectively. For non-gonorrheal urethritis, they were 75% each. No adverse effects were observed. The results indicate that short-term administration of norfloxacin is useful in the treatment of acute urethritis, especially for gonorrheal urethritis.

1. Interaction of quinolone antibiotics and the anti-inflammatory agent fenbufen with the gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptor-chloride channel complex in pyramidal neurons freshly dissociated from the hippocampal CA1 region of the rats was investigated in whole-cell mode, using the patch-clamp technique under voltage-clamp conditions. 2. Quinolones in clinical doses had no effects on the GABA-gated Cl- current (ICl) but slightly suppressed the response at concentrations greater than 10(-5) M. A metabolite of fenbufen, 4-biphenylacetic acid (BPA), also had little effect on the GABA response at therapeutic concentrations. 3. Coadministration of one of quinolones and BPA suppressed the GABA-gated ICl with increase in each of them in a concentration-dependent manner, and there was a parallel shift of the concentration-response curve for GABA to the right but with no effect on the maximum response, thereby indicating a competitive antagonism. The inhibitory potency of antibiotics in combination with BPA was in the order of norfloxacin much greater than enoxacin greater than cyprofloxacin greater than pipemidic acid much greater than ofloxacin greater than cinoxacin = piromidic acid = nalidixic acid = 0. 4. Norfloxacin and BPA, administered simultaneously, also strongly suppressed pentobarbital sodium (PB)-gated ICl, but they did not act on benzodiazepine (BZP) receptors. 5. Both GABA- and PB-induced ICls reversed at the Cl- equilibrium potential (ECl). In the presence of BPA, the quinolone-induced inhibition of GABA-gated ICls showed no voltage dependence. 6. It was concluded that, in the presence of an anti-inflammatory agent, the quinolone antibiotics decrease the affinity of GABAA receptors, the result being induction of epileptogenic neurotoxicities.

To assess if microbiological inhibition tests for detection of antibiotic residues are suitable for routine screening for quinolone residues, the limit of detection (LOD) of 10 different quinolones and fluoroquinolones was determined. Two media were tested, one at pH 6 and the other at pH 8, each seeded with one of the following test strains: Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli or Bacillus cereus. LODs of the 10 substances were highest on plates seeded with B. cereus, intended for selective detection of tetracycline residues. The pattern of zones on the other four plates differed for the targeted quinolones: flumequine and oxolinic acid were detected at lower concentrations at pH 6, while the LODs of ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, marbofloxacin, sarafloxacin and norfloxacin were lower at pH 8. Nine of the 10 quinolones were detected more easily with E. coli, but the LOD of difloxacin was lower with B. subtilis. Finally, the three most sensitive media were selected and fluid from chicken meat, spiked with eight quinolones near maximum residue limits (MRL), analysed on each plate. The plate seeded with E. coli at pH 8 detected five of eight quinolones at levels of interest, but an additional E. coli plate at pH 6 was necessary for detection of flumequine in species other than poultry and fish. None of the plates detected oxolinic acid and difloxacin at MRLs in muscle tissue.

Five thousand eight hundred and fifty-five strains of bacteria were isolated from the wounds and blood of 2269 burn patients admitted to our hospital from April of 1989 to March of 2004. Kiry-Bauer method was employed for the detection of antibiotic sensitivity test. The bacterial examination and bacterial resistance were analyzed in spans of every five years.

Fluoroquinolone-induced hypoglycemia is not a common adverse drug reaction. However, it has been reported with most of the available agents and appears to be more common in elderly patients with a history of type 2 diabetes who are receiving oral sulfonylureas. The exact mechanism of this effect is unknown but is postulated to be a result of blockage of Adenosine 5'-Triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium channels in pancreatic β-cell membranes. This report highlights hypoglycemia with urticaria as an adverse drug reaction of norfloxacin in a middle aged non-diabetic patient. Clinicians should be alert about the possibility of its potential adverse effect in patients who are receiving norfloxacin therapy.