High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

[Effects of chloride channel blockers on excitatory junction potentials in smooth muscle cells of cochlear spiral modiolar artery in guinea pigs].


A retrospective study was conducted to assess the efficacy of drug therapy with oxybutinin and imipramine in 89 patients with urodynamically demonstrated detrusor hyperreactivity. Control evaluations were performed at 2, 5 and 8 months. Evaluation of the results took into account the etiology, pressure and volume at which the wave of instability appeared.

To assess the efficacy of desmopressin plus oxybutynin and compare two starting dosages of desmopressin (120 and 240 µg) in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial for children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE) resistant to desmopressin. The predictive factors of children with MNE responsive to desmopressin and combination therapy were also evaluated.

Detrusor instability is a urodynamic diagnosis made when the detrusor is shown objectively to contract, spontaneously or on provocation, during the filling phase of a cystometrogram while the patient is attempting to inhibit micturition. It often is responsible for symptoms of urgency, frequency, nocturia, urge incontinence, and nocturnal enuresis, but is not synonymous with any of them. Furthermore, it may be responsible for urinary incontinence which appears to be simple stress incontinence, and should be excluded before an operation for genuine stress incontinence is undertaken. Patients with mixed incontinence should have their detrusor instability treated before an attempt at surgical correction of stress incontinence is made. A number of therapeutic options exist for the unstable bladder. The simplest is bladder drill. My own preference is to start patients on bladder drill in conjunction with oxybutynin chloride 5 mg orally three times daily, with the plan of weaning them off the medication if possible in 3-6 months. Propantheline bromide in dosages of 15-30 mg orally four times daily also appears to be effective. Imipramine, in dosages of 25-50 mg orally twice daily, or up to 75 or 100 mg orally at night also may be helpful, especially if the patient suffers from nocturia or nocturnal enuresis. The effects of imipramine appear to be additive to those of other drugs, and this makes it a useful adjunct in therapy. Emepronium bromide and flavoxate hydrochloride appear to be less useful pharmacologic agents. The expected addition within the next few years of terodiline hydrochloride to the drugs available in the United States is likely to improve significantly our ability to treat detrusor instability. The use of prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors in women with perimenstrual exacerbations of their symptoms may be useful on a case-by-case basis. Patients who do not experience improvement with behavioral intervention and pharmacologic treatment may be candidates for electric stimulation therapy or surgery. The efficacy of electric stimulation therapy is diminished in many cases by poor patient acceptance. The most effective surgical treatment for refractory detrusor instability appears to be augmentation cystoplasty, which should be attempted only by a trained reconstructive urologist, and which should be reserved for the most refractory and difficult cases.

To evaluate the response rate of various modalities of therapy in primary nocturnal enuretic children according to the ultrasound bladder volume and wall thickness index (BVWI) measurements.

A total of 57 participants with multiple sclerosis completed the study. Average change in bladder capacity was higher in the atropine arm. The mean +/- SD oxybutynin change was 55.5 +/- 67.2 ml, the mean atropine change was 79.6 +/- 89.6 ml and the mean difference between arms was 24.1 ml (95% CI -0.4, 49.7; p = 0.053). Changes in incontinence events and voiding frequency were not statistically different between the arms. Changes in total side effect and dry mouth scores were significantly better in the atropine treatment arm.

Volunteer sample of 143 men aged 42 to 88 who continued to have urgency and more than eight voids per day, with or without incontinence, after run-in.

Overall, a sling procedure was the most commonly recommended surgical procedure for all types of SUI. Most urologists referred patients with significant vaginal prolapse to a gynecologist. For type I SUI, older urologists were more likely than younger urologists to perform needle bladder neck suspension.

An 18-point questionnaire was distributed to urogynaecologists, general gynaecologists, urologists, geriatricians, general practitioners (GPs), and nurse specialists to assess knowledge on the subject.

Extended-release oxybutynin 5 mg per day for 4 weeks in older cognitively impaired female nursing home residents did not significantly reduce urinary incontinence and urinary frequency or achieve dryness. Participants with mild to moderate cognitive and/or physical impairment were no more likely to benefit from oxybutynin than more severely impaired individuals in an exploratory analysis but further research in a larger population and perhaps using a larger dose is needed.

Enuresis is a common paediatric problem which is sometimes treated with anticholinergic drugs. We report a 4-year-old girl who presented with acute bilateral blindness, a focal seizure and hypertension 10 days after commencing oxybutynin to treat enuresis. Magnetic resonance imaging brain showed features of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, a recognised but rare complication of hypertension in children. Discontinuing the oxybutynin leads to complete neurological recovery associated with normalisation of her blood pressure. We believe this case represents a rare complication of anticholinergic therapy. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a treatable and reversible cause of acute encephalopathy with blindness, as long as an early diagnosis is made.