High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Effect of spironolactone on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and left ventricular remodeling in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.


The occurrence and removal of 19 antibiotics (including four macrolides, eight sulfonamides, three fluoroquinolones, three tetracyclines, and trimethoprim) were investigated in two ecological (constructed wetland (CW) and stabilization pond (SP)) and two conventional wastewater treatment processes (activated sludge (AS) and micro-power biofilm (MP)) in a county of eastern China. All target antibiotics were detected in the influent and effluent samples with detection frequencies of >90%. Clarithromycin, ofloxacin, roxithromycin and erythromycin-H2O were the dominant antibiotics with maximum concentrations reaching up to 6524, 5411, 964 and 957 ng/L, respectively; while the concentrations of tiamulin, sulfamerazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamethazine, sulfamethizole and sulfisoxazole were below 10 ng/L. Although the mean effluent concentrations of target antibiotics were obviously lower than the influent ones (except ciprofloxacin), their removals were usually incomplete. Principal component analysis showed that the AS and CW outperformed the MP and SP processes and the AS performed better than the CW process in terms of antibiotics removal. Both the AS and CW processes exhibited higher removal efficiencies in summer than in winter, indicating biological degradation could play an important role in antibiotics removal. Because of the incomplete removal, the total concentration of detected antibiotics increased in the mixing and downstream sections of a local river receiving the effluent from a typical wastewater treatment facility practicing AS process. Nowadays, ecological wastewater treatment processes are being rapidly planned and constructed in rural areas of China; however, the discharge of residual antibiotics to the aquatic environment may highlight a necessity for optimizing or upgrading their design and operation.

In an open, randomized, parallel group study, the efficacy and tolerance of roxithromycin 300 mg po od was compared with clarithromycin 500 mg po bd in the treatment of 60 patients with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). The two groups were well-matched demographically. Fifty patients (25 per group) were clinically evaluable at the end of the study and a satisfactory response was found in 88% of those given roxithromycin and 80% of those given clarithromycin. All had received treatment for a minimum of 3 days. Only one (3.3%) of 30 patients in the roxithromycin group reported adverse events compared with seven (23.3%) of 30 in the clarithromycin group. Thus both roxithromycin and clarithromycin are effective in the treatment of LRTI but roxithromycin is better tolerated (P < 0.05) with the advantage of a once-daily dose.

Chlamydia pneumoniae strains have been recovered from arteriosclerotic coronary arteries, but their antibiotic susceptibility profiles have not yet been examined. We report in vitro susceptibility data for five cardiovascular C. pneumoniae isolates. These strains did not differ significantly from respiratory strains in their patterns of susceptibility to azithromycin, erythromycin, roxithromycin, ofloxacin, doxycycline, rifampin, and penicillin G. Roxithromycin was the most active macrolide, and rifampin was the most effective drug overall.

Forty-one periodontal abscess samples were cultivated on selective and non-selective culture media to isolate the oral anaerobes. Their antibiotic susceptibilities to clindamycin, doxycycline, amoxicillin, imipenem, cefradine, cefixime, roxithromycin, and metronidazole were determined using the agar dilution method, and polymerase chain reaction assays were performed to detect the presence of the ermF, tetQ, nim, and cfxA drug resistance genes.

The mechanism of product formation during ozonation of two widely used antimicrobial agents, macrolide roxithromycin and inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) trimethoprim was studied in laboratory-scale experiments with two types of matrix: distilled water and secondary wastewater effluent The structures ofthe primary and secondary reaction intermediates were elucidated byquadrupole-time-of-flight (QqToF) instrument, showing that in spite of their high ozone affinity both roxithromycin and trimethoprim oxidation pathway involve to a great degree the *OH radical chain reactions. In total nine ozonation products were detected, whereas two products of roxithromycin exhibited high refractoriness to ozonation, especially in the case of distilled water. Furthermore, the intact tertiary amine moiety of roxithromycin in these products suggests that the antimicrobial activity of the parent compound will be preserved.

Roxithromycin is a semi-synthetic 14-membered-ring macrolide antibiotic in which the erythronolide A lactone ring has been altered to prevent inactivation in the gastric milieu. The in-vitro activity of roxithromycin is well documented and similar to that of other macrolide antibiotics. Roxithromycin is active against gram-positive and gram-negative cocci, gram-positive bacilli and some gram-negative bacilli, but has no significant effect on the predominant faecal flora. It also displays good activity against atypical pathogens, such as Mycobacterium avium complex, Helicobacter pylori and Borrelia spp. It penetrates and accumulates within cells, such as macrophages and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), where it is distributed between the cytosol and cellular granules. Once inside the cells, it is active against intracellular pathogens, such as Legionella, Chlamydia, Mycobacterium, Rickettsia and Borrelia spp. Like other macrolides, roxithromycin displays a significant post-antibiotic effect which is dependent on the pathogens under study, the concentration of roxithromycin and the duration of exposure. In vivo, roxithromycin is as effective or more effective than other macrolides in a wide range of infections.