High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Effect of metronidazole and sulfasalazine on the normal human faecal flora.


Several sumatriptan subcutaneous autoinjector devices for acute treatment of migraine patients are available, each device differs with respect to design and features. Determining device preference and ease of use is important because patients experiencing a migraine attack are often functionally impaired.

To investigate whether the incidence of epithelial defects during laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) was different in patients who were taking sumatriptan (Imitrex, Glaxo Smith Kline, Pittsburgh, Pa) for migraine headaches than in those who were not.

The percentage of patients reporting satisfied/very satisfied for Overall Satisfaction of SNC versus S/N (primary endpoint) was 85% versus 72% respectively (p = 0.054). For Overall Effectiveness, the results were 82% for SNC versus 73% for S/N (p = 0.159); and for Overall Side Effects the results were 86% for SNC versus 69% for S/N (p = 0.005). Mean PPMQ-R scores reflect greater satisfaction with SNC than S/N for Total score and for each of four subscales. The difference between SNC and S/N was significant for the Ease of Use subscale (p = 0.004) and met the criterion of being clinically meaningful for both the Total score and Ease of Use. SNC did not differ from S/N with respect to pain-free response 2 h post dose, pain relief 2 h post dose, sustained 24 h pain-free response, or sustained 24 h pain relief.

We conducted two studies: a randomized, three-way crossover study comparing monodose and multidose devices for delivery of single doses of DFN-02 with commercially available intranasal sumatriptan 20 mg in 18 healthy, fasted adults, and an open-label, randomized, single-dose, three-way crossover bioavailability study comparing DFN-02 with 4 mg and 6 mg subcutaneous sumatriptan in 78 healthy, fasted adults. In the study comparing DFN-02 with IN sumatriptan, subjects received a single dose of DFN-02 (sumatriptan 10 mg plus DDM 0.20%) via monodose and multidose delivery systems with at least 5 days between treatments. In the comparison with SC sumatriptan, subjects received a single dose of each treatment with at least 3 days between treatments. In both studies, blood was sampled for pharmacokinetic evaluation of sumatriptan and DDM through 24 hours post-dose; safety and tolerability were monitored throughout.

If you vomit with migraines, get full-blown migraines upon awakening, or want rapid relief without injections, consider a nasal spray. Options include triptans (zolmitriptan [Zomig] or sumatriptan [Imitrex]), DHE (Migranal), or an NSAID (Sprix).

We conducted three pharmacokinetic studies of subcutaneous sumatriptan in 98 healthy adults. Sumatriptan was administered subcutaneously (236 administrations) as either DFN-11 3 mg, a novel 0.5 mL autoinjector being developed by Dr. Reddy's Laboratories; Imitrex(®) (Sumatriptan) injection 3 mg or 6 mg (6 mg/0.5 mL); or Imitrex STATdose 4 mg or 6 mg (0.5 mL). Blood was sampled for 12 hours to determine sumatriptan Cp. Maximum Cp (Cmax), area under the curve during the first 2 hours (AUC0-2), and total area under the curve (AUC0-∞) were determined using noncompartmental methods. Post hoc analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between these exposure metrics and each of body weight, BMI, age, sex, and race (categorized as white, black, or others).

This randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of oral sumatriptan (Imitrex tablets) in 259 migraineurs. In the clinic, patients received oral sumatriptan 25 mg, 50 mg, or 100 mg, or placebo for the treatment of a migraine attack. The results indicate that by 2 hours post-dose, 50 to 56% of patients treated with any of the three doses, compared with 26% of patients treated with placebo, achieved relief of headache (p < 0.05 for each sumatriptan group vs placebo). By 4 hours postdose, 68 to 71% of sumatriptan-treated patients, compared with 38% of placebo-treated patients, achieved relief of headache (p < 0.05 for each sumatriptan group vs placebo). Oral sumatriptan was similarly effective at relieving nausea and photophobia and at reducing clinical disability. The pattern and incidence of adverse events did not differ between treatment groups. All doses--25 mg, 50 mg, and 100 mg--of sumatriptan were effective and generally well tolerated. Dosing should be individualized according to the needs of the patient.

A number of important new pharmacologic agents in widespread clinical use share the ability of manipulate serotonin as their mechanism of action. Drugs as diverse as the antidepressants fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), paroxetine (Paxil), and venlafaxine (Effexor); the antimigraine agent sumatriptan (Imitrex); the antiobesity agent dexfenfluramine (Redux); and the antiemetics ondansetron (Zofran) and granisetron (Kytril) are routinely encountered in the perioperative patient. A thorough understanding of the pharmacology, physiologic effects, significant drug interactions and anesthetic implications of serotonin agonists or antagonists is vital for proper anesthetic management of patients receiving these drugs.