High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

(-)-Deprenyl protects human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells from apoptosis induced by peroxynitrite and nitric oxide.


The CysLT(2) receptor may modulate the differentiation of rat glioma C6 cells.

Multivariate analysis was used to compare total asthma-related costs between treatment groups. A significant difference in total asthma-related costs was found between patients receiving fluticasone (adjusted mean cost $511) compared with those receiving a leukotriene modifier ($1,092; p=0.0001). Other significant predictors of postindex asthma-related costs were pre-index asthma-related costs, a severity adjustment score, and the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Patients taking a leukotriene modifier obtained more short-acting beta-agonists than patients receiving fluticasone (6.49 +/- 4.05 vs 4.30 +/- 3.41, p < 0.0001). A survival analysis of time to receive any additional controller therapy revealed that patients receiving fluticasone were significantly less likely to receive another controller than were those receiving a leukotriene modifier (p=0.0014).

One hundred and eighty four patients were evaluated; LTE4 results from both the acute and follow up periods were available for analysis in 146. Urinary LTE4 levels were increased during asthma exacerbations compared with levels obtained 2 weeks later (geometric means 111.7 and 75.6 pg/mg creatinine, respectively, mean percentage change -32.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) for the mean percentage change -39.6 to -24.3, p<0.001). The correlation between improvement in FEV1 and decline in LTE4 over the 2 week interval was significant (p<0.001, r=0.43).

This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-groups study enrolled adult migraine outpatients who experienced > or =3 and < or =8 migraine attacks per month for the last 6 months. Patients were entered into a 2-month, single-blind, placebo run-in phase. Only patients who experienced > or =3 migraine attacks in the second month were eligible to enter the subsequent 3-month, double-blind treatment phase of the study. The primary efficacy endpoint was the percentage of patients reporting at least a 50% decrease in migraine attack frequency per month during the double-blind treatment period (months 3-5) compared to baseline (run-in month 2).

20.1% of the patients in the group receiving montelukast and fluticasone had an asthma exacerbation compared with 19.1% in the group receiving salmeterol and fluticasone; the difference was 1% (95% confidence interval -3.1% to 5.0%). With a risk ratio (montelukast-fluticasone/salmeterol-fluticasone) of 1.05 (0.86 to 1.29), treatment with montelukast and fluticasone was shown to be non-inferior to treatment with salmeterol and fluticasone. Salmeterol and fluticasone significantly increased FEV1 before a beta agonist was used and morning peak expiratory flow compared with montelukast and fluticasone (P < or = 0.001), whereas FEV1 after a beta agonist was used and improvements in asthma specific quality of life and nocturnal awakenings were similar between the groups. Montelukast and fluticasone significantly (P = 0.011) reduced peripheral blood eosinophil counts compared with salmeterol and fluticasone. Both treatments were generally well tolerated.

Montelukast was effective in treating EIB without inducing tolerance and provided superior (P </=.001) protection than salmeterol at weeks 4 and 8, with comparable protection at day 3. The frequency of respiratory clinical adverse events (P =.046) and discontinuations because of clinical adverse events (P =.052) were less with montelukast.

The combination of desloratadine plus montelukast is effective in the treatment of CU. It may therefore be a valid alternative in patients with relatively mild CU, in view of its efficacy and the lack of adverse events.

Three rats died in the montelukast group, whereas only one died in the control group during the study. Initial weight and weight gain at the 3rd and 6th weeks were not significantly different between the groups (p>0.05). Bone mineral densities in the control and study groups were 0.13±0.009 gr/cm2, and 0.13±0.01 gr/cm2 at week three and 0.16±0.02 gr/cm2, and 0.13±0.01 gr/cm2 at week six, respectively. Histopathological scores in the control and study groups were 3.42±0.6, and 3.0±0.0 at week three and 3.5±0.5, and 3.4±0.8 at week six, respectively. Radiological scores in the control and study groups were 1.19±0.6, and 1.0±0.6 at week three and 3.0±0.8, and 2.9±0.9 at week six, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups in any parameters evaluated at either time interval (p>0.05).

30 Wistar-Albino male rats were randomized and divided into three groups of 10 animals each: group I, sham-operated; group II, ligation and division of the common bile duct (BDL) followed by daily intraperitoneal injection of 1 ml of saline; group III, BDL followed by daily intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg montelukast dissolved in saline. The animals were killed on postoperative day 7 by high-dose diethyl ether inhalation. Blood and liver samples were taken for examination.