High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Cre recombinase resources for conditional mouse mutagenesis.


A high prevalence of antibiotic resistance, including multiresistance, was detected in Spanish H. influenzae type f isolates. Carriage of large conjugative plasmids was strongly associated with antibiotic resistance. H. influenzae type f is mainly an opportunistic pathogen, although it may cause primary severe infections, such as meningitis in children.

The incidence of infections is higher in the neonatal period than at any time of life. The basic treatment of infants with infection has not changed substantially over the last years. Antibiotics (with or without supportive care) are one of the most valuable resources in managing sick newborn babies. Early-onset (ascending or transplacental) or late-onset (hospital acquired) infections present different chronology, epidemiology, physiology and outcome. Some classes of antibiotics are frequently used in the neonatal period: penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, glycopeptides, monobactams, carbapenems. Other classes of antibiotics (chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazole, macrolides, clindamycin, rifampicin and metronidazole) are rarely used. Due to emergence of resistant bacterial strains in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU), other classes of antibiotics such as quinolones and linezolid will probably increase their therapeutic role in the future. Although new formulations have been developed for treatment of fungal infections in infants, amphotericin B remains first-line treatment for systemic Candida infection. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy is almost always undesirable. Challenges from pathogens and antibiotic resistance in the NICU may warrant modification of traditional antibiotic regimens. Knowledge of local flora and practical application of different antibiotic characteristics are key to an effective and safe utilization of antibiotics and antifungals in critical newborns admitted to the NICU, and especially in very low birth weight infants.

In the African meningitis belt, reported case-fatality ratio (CFR) for meningitis are usually calculated on the basis of presumed cases. We reviewed 3509 presumed cases of bacterial meningitis reported in Niger for which a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample had been tested later at the reference laboratory. The main aetiologies were Neisseria meningitidis (1496 cases), Streptococcus pneumoniae (303 cases) and Haemophilus influenzae (105 cases). The CFR of meningococcal meningitis was lower for serogroup A (5.5%) than for serogroups X (12%) and W135 (12.7%). With a CFR of 49.8%, pneumococcal meningitis, albeit representing only 20.7% of confirmed cases, accounted for 50% of the deaths. The disease burden of pneumococcal meningitis must be better taken into consideration in the future. As most treatments are presumptive, there is a urgent need for an easy-to-administer, cheap first-line treatment effective on N. meningitidis as well as on S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae that would replace the single-dose oily chloramphenicol treatment which is the most frequent treatment administered today, independent of microbial aetiology and season. The development of diagnostic tools really suitable for remote health facilities also is an urgent challenge.

Ototoxicity refers to damage of the cochlea and/or vestibular apparatus from exposure to chemical substances, resulting in hearing impairment and or disequilibrium. An earlier study carried out at University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH) in 2000 implicated chloramphenicol as the commonest ototoxic drug, followed by antimalarials (Quinine).

A prospective, comparative, experimental study.

A retrospective review of the medical literature and postmarketing surveillance databases.

The Cx26-1.6 kb fragment contains two GT boxes (centering at-6158 and -6213 bp), and a TATA-less TTAAAA box (-6237/-6232 bp) which is another promoter region of the human Cx26.

Coagulase-negative staphylococcus was the main pathogen of infantile dacryocystitis.

To determine the identity of European ocular bacterial pathogens and their susceptibility to topical antimicrobial agents.

To develop a set of kinetic equations which more ably describe the disinfection process.

The safety assessment of JDM301 using information derived from complete bacterial genome will contribute to a wider and deeper insight into the safety of probiotic bacteria.

Objectives were to establish conditions for preparation, growth, and maintenance of a primary culture cell model of fetal uterine cells, and to determine whether cells maintained under those conditions would maintain their capacity to respond to estrogen stimulation in vitro. Fetal uteri (n = 19) were enzymatically dispersed and grown on Type 1 collagen in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) with 10% fetal bovine serum. Fetal-uterine cells appeared fibroblast-like and exhibited positive immunostaining for both vimentin and cytokeratin. Effects of gestational age (GA), passage number (p), and hormonal treatment on appearance of specific mRNAs were determined by RT-PCR; relative concentrations of products determined by densitometry were analyzed as the ratio of target cDNA to the GAPDH loading control. Cells expressed mRNAs for estrogen receptor (ER), TGF-beta, EGF-R, PRL-R, IL-1 alpha, and IL-6. ER mRNA was greater at 185-200 than at 100-110 d GA (P < 0.01). All specific mRNAs examined were greater in p5 cells than p2 at both 100-110 (P < 0.01) and 185-200 d GA (P < 0.02). There was no effect of estradiol on these specific mRNAs in cells from 100-110 d GA; at 185-200 d GA, there was an estradiol (1.0 nM) effect both at 6 hr (P < 0.001) and 24 hr (P < 0.02). Overall, there was an effect of 8-br-cAMP (1 mM; 6 h) on specific mRNAs in cells at both 100-110 (P < 0.001) and 185-200 d GA (P < 0.001). In p5 cells from Day 185-200 GA, there was increased cell proliferation (P < 0.001) in response to estradiol (1 nM; 24 hr). These data suggest that primary fetal uterine cells retain their age-specific and hormone-responsive phenotype under these in vitro conditions.