High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Consensus guidelines for diagnosis, prophylaxis and management of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients with haematological and solid malignancies, 2014.


Recent publications on pharmaceutical monitoring are increasingly covering the field of illicit drugs and lately the forensic evaluation of designing illegal analogs of lifestyle drugs like the phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors Viagra (sildenafil), Levitra (vardenafil) and Cialis (tadalafil). Recently, the presence of all three erectile dysfunction treatment drugs has been reported in wastewaters at very low concentrations. In the environment, contaminants undergo various physical or chemical processes classified into abiotic (photolysis, hydrolysis) and biotic (biodegradation) reactions. Thus, changes in the chemical structure lead to the formation of new transformation products, which may persist in the environment or be further degraded. This study describes the photolysis of sildenafil (SDF) and its human metabolite N-demethylsildenafil (DM-SDF) under simulated solar radiation (Xenon lamp). Following chromatographic separation of the irradiated samples, eight photoproducts in the SDF samples and six photoproducts for DM-SDF were detected and characterized. The combination of ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QToF-MS), liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-QqQ-MS) and hydrogen/deuterium-exchange experiments allowed to propose plausible chemical structures for the photoproducts, taking into account the characteristic fragmentation patterns and the accurate mass measurements. These mass spectral data provided sound evidence for the susceptibility of the piperazine ring toward photodegradation. A gradual breakdown of this heterocyclic structure gave rise to a series of products, which in part were identical for SDF and DM-SDF. The sulfonic acid, as the formal product of sulfonamide hydrolysis, was identified as key intermediate in the photolysis pathway. In both drug/metabolite molecules, phototransformation processes taking place beyond the sulfonamide group were deemed to be of minor relevance.

We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study on 60 men with persistent storage LUTS after 2-week run-in with tamsulosin.

The administration of vardenafil resulted in reduction of both rate and tension of the ureteral contraction regardless of the dose of vardenafil. Nevertheless, statistical analysis revealed significantly reduced ureteral contraction rate and tension when vardenafil 1 or 10 μM was administered in comparison to the initial steady state.

To investigate the ability of resveratrol and/or vardenafil to increase cGMP in an in vitro model using CCSMCs and to improve erectile function in an in vivo rat model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes.

To review and discuss recent findings regarding the cardiovascular effects of PDE5 inhibitors and to highlight current and future clinical applications beyond ED.

The primary outcome included the posttreatment analysis of erectile function domains of the abridged International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF5+1). The secondary objectives included the analysis of peak-systolic velocities (PSVs), end-diastolic velocities (EDVs), and resistive index (RI), and the estimate of the percentage of men with normal penile hemodynamic parameters after each treatment.

To study effects of different treatments on erectile and endothelial functions in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and age-related hypogonadism (HG).

The data indicate the necessity for (1) exploration of the pharmacologic characteristics of the three PDE5-Is; (2) research on their pharmacologic differences because some actions seems to be drug-specific; (3) development of alternative management strategies, such as chronic, low, everyday doses of PDE5-Is, if the monthly cost is affordable; and (4) clinical trials on use of PDE5-Is to treat other chronic conditions. The door for innovative therapeutic approaches will open, specifically for cross-risk factor treatment with PDE5-Is or their use in combination treatments or new multimodal pills that take advantage of drugs that exert pleiotropic vascular actions.

Patients received placebo, nightly vardenafil, or on demand vardenafil.

Pubmed search utilizing the search terms "phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor," "PDE5 inhibitor,"sildenafil," "vardenafil," and "tadalafil." Articles were screened for their relevance to the clinical practice of sexual medicine and/or PDE5I toxicity. Publications on routine dose PDE5I for penile rehabilitation, lower urinary tract symptoms, and stuttering priapism are summarized in a separate manuscript in this series.

To evaluate the pharmacokinetic parameters of a single oral dose of vardenafil in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH).

A total of 88 men with mild to severe erectile dysfunction were enrolled in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose trial of 12 weeks of treatment with either placebo or 5, 10 and 20 mg of vardenafil.