High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Comparative efficacy of pyrethrum marc with albendazole against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes.


Among MDRTB isolates, levels of resistance to amikacin, capreomycin, ciprofloxacin, cycloserine, ethionamide and p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) were 5.5, 3.4, 5.6, 5.1, 14.0 and 16.7%, respectively. Six XDRTB cases (0.9% of MDR cases) were identified during this period. Two further cases of XDRTB were reported in 2008. Five individuals with XDRTB died of tuberculosis within 3 years of diagnosis and three are still on treatment.

This verified treatment failure occurred in a patient infected with an MLST ST1901/NG-MAST ST1407 strain of N. gonorrhoeae. While this international strain commonly shows resistance or decreased susceptibility to multiple antimicrobials, including extended-spectrum cephalosporins, the strain reported here remained fully susceptible to the latter antimicrobials. Hence, two subtypes of azithromycin-resistant gonococcal MLST ST1901/NG-MAST ST1407 appear to have evolved and to be circulating in Japan. Azithromycin should not be recommended as a single antimicrobial for first-line empirical treatment of gonorrhoea.

Thirty-three patients with CD, who had undergone surgery with ileocolonic anastomosis within the previous 2 weeks, were randomized to treatment with ciprofloxacin (500 mg twice daily) or placebo tablets for 6 months. Endpoints were endoscopic recurrence at 6 months and safety and tolerability of long-term ciprofloxacin therapy.

Urgent steps like specific guidelines, training, and monitoring of drugs use are needed to correct some irrational approaches.

A 5.25% NaOCl and Biopure MTAD required less chair side time to disinfect all the samples effectively when compared with 2% CHX and CFC.

It was the aim of this study to evaluate the efficacy of single-dose fosfomycin prophylaxis as an alternative to fluoroquinolone-based prophylaxis in transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate (TRUSBP).

The results of the present study showed a high prevalence of MRSA and MR-CNS. Imipenem, amoxycillin-clavulanic acid and vancomycin were the most active antibiotics. This study suggests that antibiotic surveillance policy should become national priority as MRSA and MR-CNS were found to be multidrug resistant.

A prospective study.

Fluoroquinolone resistance can cause major clinical problems. Here, we investigated fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms in a clinical Escherichia coli isolate, HUE1, which had no mutations quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. HUE1 demonstrated MICs that exceeded the breakpoints for ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and norfloxacin. HUE1 harbored oqxAB and qnrS1 on distinct plasmids. In addition, it exhibited lower intracellular ciprofloxacin concentrations and higher mRNA expression levels of efflux pumps and their global activators than did reference strains. The genes encoding AcrR (local AcrAB repressor) and MarR (MarA repressor) were disrupted by insertion of the transposon IS3-IS629 and a frameshift mutation, respectively. A series of mutants derived from HUE1 were obtained by plasmid curing and gene knockout using homologous recombination. Compared to the MICs of the parent strain HUE1, the fluoroquinolone MICs of these mutants indicated that qnrS1, oqxAB, acrAB, acrF, acrD, mdtK, mdfA, and tolC contributed to the reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolone in HUE1. Therefore, fluoroquinolone resistance in HUE1 is caused by concomitant acquisition of QnrS1 and OqxAB and overexpression of AcrAB-TolC and other chromosome-encoded efflux pumps. Thus, we have demonstrated that QRDR mutations are not absolutely necessary for acquiring fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli.

Doripenem- and ciprofloxacin-resistant mutants were enriched at antibiotic concentrations that fell into the mutant selection window for ≥ 45% and ≥ 60% of the dosing interval, respectively. The anti-mutant effects of doripenem and ciprofloxacin expressed by the area under the bacterial mutant concentration-time curve (AUBCM) depended on the AUC24/MIC ratio, and the AUBCM-log AUC24/MIC relationships were antibiotic specific.

Ninety three of diarrheal cases comprising enteropathogen isolates. A recognized bacterial enteric pathogen was identified in 31% of the cases and 8% of the control group. The frequency of isolated enteropathogens from faeces of diarrheal cases was recorded in the following order, Enterohemorrhagic E. coli 8.3%, Shigella spp. 6.7%, Campylobacter jejuni 5%, Salmonella spp. 4%, Yersinia enterocolitica 2.7%, Aeromonas spp. 4.7%, and Plesiomonas spp. 1.3%. E.H.E coli, Shigella and Salmonella had shown a significant statistical association with diarrhea (p<0.05). Compared to matched uninfected control, multivariate analysis revealed that malnutrition status (OR adjusted 8.37; p<0.001) was the only independent factor associated with infection. Antibiotic susceptibility profile indicated that enteropathogens were generally susceptible to meropenem, ceftriaxone, followed by amikacin and ciprofloxacin. Almost all enteropathogens were resistant to ampicillin and amoxicillin.