High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Chromatographic behavior of selected antibiotic drugs supported by quantitative structure-retention relationships.


To evaluate the effect of apolipoprotein E (apoE) genotype on baseline lipid levels and the response to hydroxy-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) therapy in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. The management of blood cholesterol through use of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) in at-risk patients is a pillar of medical therapy for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. The recent 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline on managing blood cholesterol provides an important framework for the effective implementation of risk-reduction strategies. The guideline identifies four cohorts of patients with proven benefits from statin therapy and streamlines the dosing and monitoring recommendations based on evidence from published, randomized controlled trials. Primary care physicians and cardiologists play key roles in identifying populations at elevated ASCVD risk. In providing a practical management overview of the current blood cholesterol guideline, we facilitate more informed discussions on treatment options between healthcare providers and their patients.

The following treatments were evaluated: atorvastatin, simvastatin, and pravastatin 10-40 mg/day; lovastatin and fluvastatin 20-80 mg/day; and colestyramine 12-24 g/day. The cost effectiveness of these treatments was evaluated, in terms of cost per percentage of LDL-C reduction, by comparing annual treatment costs versus the efficacy of LDL-C reduction. Treatment costs included medication costs (2003 wholesale prices), control measures, and the treatment of adverse affects. The efficacy of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) was obtained from a meta-analysis of results obtained from clinical trials published between 1993 and 2003 that met the following criteria: monotherapy; >16 weeks of treatment; randomized allocation of individuals to the intervention and comparator groups; dietary treatment for > or =3 months before administration of medication; and double-blind measurement of outcomes. Average and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated to assess the efficiency of cholesterol-lowering treatments.

Background. Myocardial ischemial reperfusion represents a clinically relevant problem associated with thrombolysis, angioplasty, and coronary bypass surgery. Injury of myocardium due to ischemial reperfusion includes cardiac contractile dysfunction, arrhythmias, and irreversible myocytes damage. These changes are considered to be the consequence of imbalance between the formation of oxidants and the availability of endogenous antioxidants in the heart. Objective. This study was undertaken to investigate the potential role of Simvastatin in the amelioration of myocardial I/R injury induced by ligation of coronary artery in a rat model. Materials and Methods. Adult male Swiss Albino rats were randomized into 4 equal groups. Group (1): sham group: rats underwent the same anesthetic and surgical procedures as those in the control group except ligation of LAD coronary artery, group (2): control group: rats were subjected to regional ischemia for 25 min and reperfusion for 2 hours by ligation of LAD coronary artery, group (3): control vehicle group: rats received vehicle of Simvastatin (normal saline) via IP injection and were subjected to regional ischemia for 25 min and reperfusion for 2 hours by ligation of LAD coronary artery, group (4): Simvastatin treated group: rats were pretreated with Simvastatin 1 mg/kg i.p. 1 hr before ligation of LAD coronary artery. At the end of experiment (2 hr of reperfusion), blood samples were collected from the heart for the measurement of plasma level of cardiac troponin I (cTnI). After that the heart was harvested and divided into 3 parts; one part was used for measurement of apoptosis, another part was homogenized for the measurement of tissue tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α ), interleukin-1 β (IL-1 β ), interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 α , and the last part for histopathology study. Results. Compared with the sham group, levels of myocardial TNF- α and IL-1 β , IL-6, MCP-1, and MIP-1 α and plasma cTnI were increased (P < 0.05). Histologically, all rats in control group showed significant (P < 0.05) cardiac injury. Furthermore, all rats in control group showed significant (P < 0.05) apoptosis. Simvastatin significantly counteracted the increase in myocardium level of TNF- α , IL-1B, IL-6, MCP-1 and MIP-1 α , plasma cTnI, and apoptosis (P < 0.05). Histological analysis revealed that Simvastatin markedly reduced (P < 0.05) the severity of heart injury in the rats that underwent LAD ligation procedure. Conclusions. The results of the present study reveal that Simvastatin may ameliorate myocardial I/R injury in rats via interfering with inflammatory reactions and apoptosis which were induced by I/R injury.