High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Changing patterns of drug-resistant Shigella isolates in egypt.


Both finasteride and dutasteride reduced PSA and prostate volume significantly. The comparison between groups showed a more significant reduction of PSA (p=0.020) and prostate volume (p=0.052) in the dutasteride group. Other parameters did not differ significantly between the groups.

The 5α-Reductase Trial was a randomized controlled trial of healthy men aged 18 to 50 years comparing placebo plus testosterone enthanate with dutasteride plus testosterone enanthate from May 2005 through June 2010.

Among men with a previous negative biopsy the accuracy of prebiopsy prostate specific antigen to predict overall and high grade prostate cancer was independent of body mass index.

Reported AEs with 5ARIs include sexual dysfunction, infertility, mood disorders, gynecomastia, high-grade prostate cancer, breast cancer, and cardiovascular morbidity/risk factors, although their true association, prevalence, causality, and clinical significance remain unclear. A pooled summary of all randomized, placebo-controlled trials evaluating 5ARIs (N = 62,827) revealed slightly increased rates over placebo for decreased libido (1.5%), erectile dysfunction (ED) (1.6%), ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD) (3.4%), and gynecomastia (1.3%). The limited data available on the impact of 5ARIs on mood disorders demonstrate statistically significant (although clinically minimal) differences in rates of depression and/or anxiety. Similarly, there are limited reports of reversible, diminished fertility among susceptible individuals. Post-marketing surveillance reports have questioned the actual prevalence of AEs associated with 5ARI use and suggest the possibility of persistent symptoms after drug discontinuation. Well-designed studies evaluating these reports are needed.

Greater Qmax improvement is expected with combination therapy comprising α-blockers and 5α-reductase inhibitors for patients with a TZI ≥0.5. The TZI may be useful for predicting the Qmax response to combination treatment for BPH.

Dutasteride is the first dual inhibitor of both 5alpha-reductase Types 1 and 2 isoenzymes, with efficacy and safety proven in 3 randomized placebo-controlled trials, each 2 years in duration. The current report demonstrates that longer-term treatment over 48 months with dutasteride results in continuing improvements in urinary symptoms and flow rate, and further reductions in total and transition zone volume of the prostate in men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The reduction in risk of acute urinary retention and BPH-related surgery, seen in the double-blind phase, was durable over the 4-year term of the studies. The incidence of new onset adverse events remained low during the open-label extension phase, and less than 1% of patients discontinued therapy due to adverse events. These findings combined establish that the disease-modifying benefits of dutasteride are durable in long-term treatment. Dutasteride was also well tolerated in long-term use, with no new safety issues emerging over 4 years of treatment.

The 4-yr primary end point was time to first AUR or BPH-related surgery. Secondary end points included BPH clinical progression, symptoms, Q(max), prostate volume, safety, and tolerability.

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of T administration in obese, nondiabetic men on body composition and IS, and to determine if inhibition (i) of metabolism of T to E2 with anastrazole or to DHT with dutasteride alters these effects.

Of 4073 men, 3255 (79.9%) had at least one biopsy after randomization and were analyzed. Androgen levels tested continuously or by quintiles were generally unrelated to PCa detection or grade. PCa detection was similar among men with low compared with normal baseline testosterone levels (25.5% and 25.1%; p=0.831). In secondary analysis, higher testosterone levels at baseline were associated with higher PCa detection (odds ratio: 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.43; p=0.006) only if men had low baseline testosterone (<10nmol/l). For men with normal baseline testosterone (≥10 nmol/l), higher testosterone levels at baseline were unrelated to PCa risk (p=0.33). No association was found for DHT and PCa (all p>0.85).

To investigate the effects of dutasteride on serum testosterone level and body mass index (BMI) in men who received medical therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

Men with diabetes mellitus are less likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa). As diabetic men have lower serum PSA, it is unclear if this is due to lower PCa incidence or reflects detection bias from fewer PSA-triggered biopsies. To account for differential biopsy rates, we used multivariate regression to examine the link between diabetes and PCa risk in the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) trial, which required all subjects to undergo biopsy regardless of PSA. We further tested for interaction between diabetes and obesity. Diabetes status and body mass index (BMI) measurements were obtained at baseline. On multivariate analysis, diabetes was not associated with PCa risk (odds ratio (OR) 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.79-1.30, P=0.92) or risk of low- or high-grade disease (all P ≥ 0.65). When stratified by obesity, diabetes was also not associated with PCa risk in any BMI category (all P ≥ 0.15). However, there was suggestion of effect modification by obesity for high-grade disease (P-interaction=0.053). Specifically, diabetes was associated with decreased risk of high-grade PCa in normal-weight men but increased risk in obese men (OR 0.35 vs 1.38). In the REDUCE trial, when all men underwent biopsy, diabetes was not associated with lower PCa risk, but rather equal risk of PCa, low-grade PCa and high-grade PCa.