High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

[Changes in left-ventricular function in chronic congestive heart failure treated with digoxin, furosemide and vasodilators].


Hospital protocols for treating infections should be reviewed and updated based on accurate local data. These data should be used for formulating regional specific protocols. Our results suggest that meroponem and ciprofloxacin should be reserved for microbiologically proven resistance to other antibiotics.

Antimicrobial resistance has been a challenge in all countries. The aim of this study is to ascertain the risk factors that predispose patients to infections with extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL)-producing gram-negative bacteria and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Patients who were treated in the secondary care hospital due to infections in 2009 and their isolates were evaluated retrospectively. In total, 174 patients and their 189 isolates, which contained 36 ESBL-producing gram-negative bacteria, 112 non-ESBL-producing gram-negative bacteria, and 41 gram-positive bacteria were evaluated retrospectively. Hospitalisation in the previous 3 months, comorbidity, and usage of amoxicillin-clavulanate in the previous 3 months were determined to be the risk factors associated with infections by the ESBL-producing gram-negative bacteria. Hospitalisation was found to be a risk factor for infection with MRSA. Hospitalisation and underlying conditions increase the colonisation with resistant bacteria and resistance rates in the patients, hospitals and communities. An infection control programme should be contemplated not only for hospitals, but also for the greater community.

A total of 210 clinical isolates of H. pylori were collected from April 1998 to September 2007 from patients in southern Taiwan. The in vitro activities of six antimicrobial agents were determined by the agar dilution method and Etest. The mutations in quinolone resistance-determining regions of gyrA and gyrB were investigated by direct sequencing.

The world of beta-lactams has become more complex than initially thought, due to the increased number of chemical structures available, the wide variety of indications for their use in treating different infectious diseases, and possibly also due to the interaction of other as yet undetermined factors. Benzyl penicillin, the original inducer of allergic reactions, has now largely been replaced by amoxicillin and, to a lesser extent, by cephalosporins in inducing IgE-mediated allergic reactions. These structures often share extensive cross-reactivity, eliciting clinical reactions to many compounds, especially amongst penicillins. In other circumstances selective responses are observed which are restricted to one group or one single compound, as occurs in the group of cephalosporins. The application of new determinants for skin testing and the use of adapted in-vitro studies have enabled these findings to be confirmed in detail.

The majority (66.1%) of the isolates belonged to five serotypes all included in PCVs: 6B, 9V, 14, 19F and 23F. The potential coverage of the 10-valent and 13-valent PCV was of 71.2% and 76.3% respectively. Resistance rates were very high and 69.5% of the isolates were multidrug resistant: non-susceptibility rates to penicillin, amoxicillin and cefotaxime were 66.1%, 40.7% and 27.1%, respectively; resistance rates to erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, were 69.5%, 61.0%, 37.3%, 22.0% and 67.8%, respectively. The most frequent serotypes had STs characteristic of multidrug resistant international clones known to be highly successful and important causes of pneumococcal infection: Spain 23F-ST81, France 9V/14-ST156, Spain 6B-ST90, 19F-ST320, and Portugal 19F-ST177.

There is no significant difference in the eradication rates between EAS and EMS, regardless of the gyrA mutation status of the H. pylori strains. GyrA mutation status was an important factor in predicting successful eradication with sitafloxacin-containing rescue therapies.

In 2013, Clermont classified E. coli strains into eight phylogenetic groups using a new quadruplex PCR method. The aims of this study were to identify the phylogenetic groups of E. coli based on this method and to assess their antibiotic resistance patterns in Bushehr, Iran.

The sustained intragastric pH > 4.0 for a longer postdose time appears to be required for a successful eradication of H. pylori with lansoprazole and acid-labile antibiotics.

A total of 140 broiler flocks presented for slaughtering at Amman slaughterhouse were tested for Campylobacter spp. via collection of cloacal swabs from live birds, feathered skin samples at prescalding, and skin samples at postscalding (62°C or 57°C scalding temperature), postevisceration, and postchilling. The results indicated that 40% of the flocks tested by cloacal swabs, 34% at prescalding, 32% at post 57°C scalding, and 32% postevisceration were harboring Campylobacter jejuni. None of the skin samples collected from dressed birds at postscalding (62°C) or postwashing-chilling steps (regardless of scalding temperature) revealed the presence of C. jejuni. Thirty eight isolates were tested for susceptibility to ten antimicrobials by using the microbroth dilution method. Almost 50% of the isolates were multidrug resistant to 9 or 10 out of the ten tested antimicrobials. The other half of tested isolates were sensitive to erythromycin, tetracycline, doxycyclin, chlortetracycline, ciprofloxacin, enorfloxacin, gentamycin, tilmicosin, amoxicillin, and trimethoprim.