High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Cardiovascular drugs and atherosclerosis: effects of calcium antagonists, beta-blockers, and nitrates on atherosclerotic characteristics of human aortic cells.


A COX inhibitor had an effect on vascular permeability in CNV and may have improved exudative changes.

Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infections in women. Most urinary tract infections are acute uncomplicated cystitis. Identifiers of acute uncomplicated cystitis are frequency and dysuria in an immunocompetent woman of childbearing age who has no comorbidities or urologic abnormalities. Physical examination is typically normal or positive for suprapubic tenderness. A urinalysis, but not urine culture, is recommended in making the diagnosis. Guidelines recommend three options for first-line treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis: fosfomycin, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (in regions where the prevalence of Escherichia coli resistance does not exceed 20 percent). Beta-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefaclor, cefdinir, and cefpodoxime are not recommended for initial treatment because of concerns about resistance. Urine cultures are recommended in women with suspected pyelonephritis, women with symptoms that do not resolve or that recur within two to four weeks after completing treatment, and women who present with atypical symptoms.

233 H. influenzae isolates obtained from pediatric outpatients with acute otitis media (n = 55), sinusitis (n = 58), or lower respiratory tract infections ( n = 120) from 1 November 2004 to 30 April 2005 were characterized for beta-lactamase production and susceptibility to a panel of 10 beta-lactam antimicrobials. 5000 concentration-time profiles were simulated for US FDA-approved doses of oral amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefpodoxime, cefprozil, ceftibuten, and cefuroxime using pharmacokinetics and weights of 5-year old male children. The probability of attaining free drug concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for 50% of the dosing interval (50% fT > MIC) was assessed for each regimen against this population of H. influenzae.

In an in vitro pharmacodynamic model, a twice-daily cefdinir dosing regimen was more effective than a once-daily regimen against common bacterial respiratory pathogens in producing 3-log(10) killing and preventing the occurrence of regrowth at 24 h. Twice-daily administration is likely the more appropriate cefdinir dosing strategy for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia.

The addition of antibiotics to therapeutic regimens for uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition was associated with a significant improvement in recovery and mortality rates. (Funded by the Hickey Family Foundation and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01000298.).

The majority (85%) of isolates were pharyngeal. Resistance was detected to erythromycin (6.8% of isolates), azithromycin (6.9%), clarithromycin (6.6%), clindamycin (0.5%), telithromycin (0.2%), and levofloxacin (0.05%). The macrolide-resistance phenotype distribution was as follows: macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB), 56% of isolates (inducible, 47%; constitutive, 9%); and M, 44%. The genotypes detected were as follows: ermA, 46% of isolates (95% with inducible MLSB phenotype); mefA, 43% (all with M phenotype); and ermB, 8.5% (45% with inducible MLSB and 45% with constitutive MLSB). Three isolates with constitutive MLSB phenotypes had 23S ribosomal RNA mutations. The 129 erythromycin-resistant isolates belonged to 28 emm types and 44 PFGE patterns, with 51% of the isolates in 4 major PFGE clones each associated with a predominant emm type (emm75, emm58, emm12, and emm114) and resistance genotype (mefA or ermA)).

Agar dilution was used to determine the MICs of RPR 106972 (a new oral streptogramin), cefditoren (a new oral cephalosporin), two new oxazolidinones (U-100592 and U-100766), and other oral and parenteral agents for 203 penicillin-susceptible and -resistant pneumococci. All pneumococci were inhibited by RPR 106972 at < or = 0.5 microgram/ml. Cefditoren was very active against all pneumococcal groups, with MICs of < or = 2.0 micrograms/ml. Amoxicillin with or without clavulanate was the next most active oral beta-lactam, followed by cefdinir, cefuroxime, cefpodoxime, and cefprozil. U-100592 and U-100766 were very active against all classes of pneumococci, with all MICs < or = 1.0 microgram/ml.

The antibacterial susceptibility to frequently prescribed antibiotics of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from the pediatric patients with acute respiratory infectious diseases was investigated in a study of three medical institutions in Korea. Total 143 clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae were available for susceptibility tests between May 2003 and July 2007. Antimicrobial susceptibility data for S. pneumoniae were analyzed by using agents of amoxicillin, cefaclor, cefuroxime, cefdinir, and cefditoren as the test antibiotics. The prevalence of each resistance class, penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP) were high with the proportion of MIC range (susceptible = 8.4%, intermediate resistance = 18.2%, resistance = 73.4%). MIC90 and susceptible (S) rate of antimicrobial agents to the strains tested were amoxicillin (MIC90 = 4 microg/ml, S = 76.2%), cefaclor (MIC90 = 128 microg/ml, S=8.4%), cefuroxime (MIC90 = 16 microg/ml, S = 24.5%), cefdinir (MIC90 = 16 microg/ml, S = 21.8%), and cefditoren (MIC90 = 0.5 microg/ml, S=90.2%) respectively. Against clinical isolates including PRSP, cefditoren demonstrated the strongest antibacterial activity intrinsically among the antibiotics tested. Conclusively, the antimicrobial activity of cefditoren to S. pneumoniae strains isolated from pediatric patients with acute respiratory infection is very high. In South Korea, where the antibiotic resistance ofS. pneumoniae is issued, cefditoren is expected to be used as a primary or secondary antibiotic. Moreover, cefditoren may serve as a useful option for secondary antibiotics after failure of amoxicillin treatment, which is most primarily used for acute respiratory S. pneumoniae infection in children.