High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Anti-tumour necrosis factor-alpha therapy in heart failure: future directions.


Compared to all SSRIs for the treatment of major depression (fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram, escitalopram and fluvoxamine), venlafaxine was associated with a greater response [odds ratio 1.15 (95% CI 1.02-1.29)] and remission [odds ratio 1.19 (95% CI 1.06-1.34)]. Overall drop out rates appeared similar for SSRIs and venlafaxine. Compared to tricyclics, response to venlafaxine was estimated to be greater by exact method, odds ratio 1.21 (95% CI 1.03-1.43), but not statistically significantly different, using a full random effects method odds ratio 1.22 (95% CI 0.96-1.54). We observed no difference in remission rates (odds ratio 1.06 (95% CI 0.74-1.63)). Tricyclics were less well tolerated with higher overall drop out rates. Compared to alternative antidepressants in treatment resistant depression (trials included comparison with sertraline, bupropion, fluoxetine, citalopram, and one with a range of agents-mostly SSRIs), the odds ratio for response was 1.35 (95% CI 1.19-1.54). The odds ratio for remission was 1.35 (95% CI 1.20-1.52). Compared to placebo the odds ratio for relapse prevention with venlafaxine was 0.37 (95% CI 0.27-0.51).

Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD) has been used as a specific probe for CYP1A1 and CYP1A2. Selective inhibition of one of these cytochromes P450 may differentiate their activity in human liver. Four inhibitors were chosen to examine the selective inhibition of EROD activity, using cDNA of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2. The two flavones, alpha-naphthoflavone and apigenin, while differing in potency, inhibited expressed human CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and human liver microsomes to a similar extent. Isosafrole and fluvoxamine were found to inhibit CYP1A2 selectively, with Ki values of 14 and 800 times, respectively, lower than those for CY1A1. A set of equations was developed to estimate both CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 activity. Levels of CYP1A2 in four human liver specimens ranged from 44.4 to 76.7 pmol/mg protein, which significantly correlated with phenacetin O-deethylase activity (r = 0.99; P < 0.001). Low levels of CYP1A1 activity were present in all four investigated livers, ranging from 0.4 to 2.7 pmol/mg protein.

In a 12-week multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 92 patients with social phobia were treated with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine; 91.3% of the patients had the generalized subtype of the disorder. The primary criterion for response was a rating of "much improved" or "very much improved" on the Clinical Global Impression of Improvement scale. Secondary response criteria were changes on three specialized rating scales for social phobia symptoms: the Brief Social Phobia Scale, the Social Phobia Inventory, and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Psychosocial impairment was assessed in three domains (disruption of work, social life, and home/family life) by using the Sheehan Disability Scale.

We conclude that fluvoxamine has antiulcer effects, and that these occur by a mechanism that involves activation of antioxidant parameters and inhibition of some toxic oxidant parameters.

The objective of the present study was to compare the efficacy and adverse effects of olanzapine plus fluvoxamine and those of olanzapine alone, in schizophrenic patients with acute exacerbation. A randomized, placebo-controlled, 6-week trial was carried out at a University Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand. The efficacy and adverse effects were assessed biweekly by using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser side-effect scale, respectively. Twenty schizophrenic patients with acute exacerbation were randomly assigned to receive olanzapine plus fluvoxamine or olanzapine alone. The study found that the means of BPRS total and BPRS general psychopathology score changes were significantly larger in olanzapine plus fluvoxamine group (P = 0.037 and P = 0.045, respectively). The incidence of treatment adverse effects is comparable. In conclusion, the study findings suggest that fluvoxamine augmentation to olanzapine is well tolerated and more effective than olanzapine alone for short-term (6-week) treatment of an acute exacerbation of schizophrenia. Due to a number of limitations, further studies are warranted to confirm.

We examined the effects of fluvoxamine on food intake during rebound hyperphagia induced by a time-restricted feeding schedule in rats. Rats were allowed access to food for only 2 h daily for 7 days, and then had free access to food for 7 consecutive days. The daily food intake of the rats was dramatically increased, by 42.5% (rebound hyperphagia), for 7 days of the free-feeding period. Intraperitoneal injection of fluvoxamine decreased food intake significantly in a dose-dependent manner for the first 3 h of feeding during 7 days. When rats were allowed access to one of the standard, carbohydrate-, fat-, or protein-rich diets in the free-feeding period following the time-restricted feeding schedule, fluvoxamine significantly decreased food intakes of standard, carbohydrate- and fat-rich diets on all days, and the protein-rich diet after the 2nd day of the free-feeding period. These results indicate that fluvoxamine, irrespective of the diet composition, suppresses rebound hyperphagia induced by a time-restricted feeding schedule, but that its effect is short-lived.