High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Clostridium difficile Isolates from Family Dairy Farms.


Verbal interactions are part of any patient-physician encounter and should be theory guided as part of the therapeutic process in the treatment of depressive disorders. Under this assumption the rate of patients for which psychiatrists reported some kind of verbal therapy as explicit part of their treatment could be higher. More research is needed on patient guidance, counseling and supportive psychotherapy in psychiatry.

Medline, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Eighteen trials met the criteria for review.

This article looks at the most important developments of antidepressants in the 1990s. The major properties of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, reversible and selective inhibitors of monoamine oxidase type A, selective serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, and noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants are discussed. On the basis of the specific advantages and disadvantages of these compounds, unmet medical needs in the psychopharmacological treatment of depression are considered and the profile of an ideal antidepressant is outlined, followed by some closing remarks on potential new mechanisms of action. The most important progress in the past 10 years has been the development of compounds which possess markedly reduced binding capacities at receptor sites not linked to their antidepressive actions. This development has improved tolerability, both in therapeutic use and in overdose. Three main therapeutic needs have still to be met: (i) superior efficacy to tricyclic antidepressants; (ii) a faster onset of action; and (iii) reliable effectiveness in the treatment of therapy-resistant depression.

LTP is impaired by chronic treatment with antidepressant that inhibit both serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake; this impairment results from changes that are downstream of postsynaptic depolarization and calcium influx.

Early-onset chronic/recurrent MDD was associated with a distinct set of sociodemographic (female, younger age) and clinical correlates (longer duration of illness, greater number of prior episodes, greater likelihood of atypical features, higher rates of suicidality and psychiatric co-morbidity, fewer medical problems, poorer quality of life, greater history of child abuse/neglect). However, results from unadjusted and adjusted analyses showed no significant differences in response, remission, tolerability of medications, quality of life, or retention at 12 or 28 weeks.

We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study using administrative health care databases in Ontario, Canada. We included all patients aged 66 years or older who commenced treatment with either venlafaxine or sertraline between April 1, 2000, and March 31, 2009. We used inverse probability of treatment weighting with the propensity score to account for observed systematic differences in baseline characteristics between the 2 treatment groups. The primary outcome was a composite of death or hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction or congestive heart failure (as defined by codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth and Tenth Revisions) within the first year of therapy. In secondary analyses, each outcome was examined separately.

We assessed DHEA-S concentrations both at baseline and after a 4-week treatment period in 70 depressed patients (n=33 for venlafaxine and n=37 for mirtazapine) and 33 matched healthy controls.

The serotonin syndrome is the result of excess stimulation of central nervous 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT)-1a and 5HT-2 receptors. The diagnosis requires a history of exposure to agents active at serotonin receptors and the presence of alterations in mental status, autonomic instability, and neuromuscular abnormalities such as tremor, hyperreflexia, or myoclonus. In this descriptive case series, five cases of serotonin syndrome are reported. All patients gave a history of recent exposure to one or more serotonergic medications, including moclobemide, paroxetine, sertraline, and venlafaxine, with clinical evidence of serotonin syndrome. All patients were administered cyproheptadine (4-8 mg orally) for serotonergic signs. Three had complete resolution of signs within 2 h of administration. Another two had a residual tremor or hyperreflexia following the first dose, which resolved following a repeat dose. There were no adverse outcomes from cyproheptadine use. The role of specific serotonin receptor antagonists such as cyproheptadine in the treatment of the serotonin syndrome remains to be delineated. Its use should be considered an adjunct to supportive care. Currently, it is unknown whether cyproheptadine modifies patient outcome.

A 29-year-old Taiwanese woman with major depressive disorder abruptly developed serotonin syndrome during low-dose (37.5 mg/d) venlafaxine monotherapy, with symptoms of restlessness, tremor, shivering, diarrhea, vomiting, ataxia, tachycardia, and myoclonus. The patient recovered in 2 hours after receiving prochlorperazine and lorazepam in the emergency department. Venlafaxine was discontinued, and she was discharged home. Two weeks later, the patient started to receive fluoxetine 20 mg/d and reported no adverse adverse effects during follow-up clinic visits.