Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from pediatric carriers in Spain.
The subjects were randomly administered levofloxacin (300 mg b.d.)- or metronidazole (500 mg b.d.)-based therapy with lansoprazole (30 mg b.d.) and amoxicillin (1000 mg b.d.) for 7 days, and the cure rates and side effects were analysed. Antimicrobial susceptibility was also examined before second-line therapy using the E-test.
A significantly higher (intention-to-treat/per-protocol) eradication rate was found in patients with duodenal ulcer than those with non-ulcer dyspepsia (91/94% vs. 84/88% respectively, P = 0.011 and P = 0.016). Clarithromycin resistance rate was higher in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia than those with duodenal ulcer (14% vs. 6%, P = 0.015). Clarithromycin resistance (40% vs. 5%, P < 0.001, OR 12, 95% CI: 5.7-24.3) and the diagnosis of non-ulcer dyspepsia (91% vs. 84%, P = 0.011, OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.2-3.3) significantly affected the success of H. pylori eradication.
Helicobacter pylori infection has been reported to be inversely associated with allergic disorders. We by chance experienced a patient with atrophic gastritis who presented marked elevations of both nonspecific serum immunoglobulin E and eosinophil counts after H. pylori eradication. A 49-year-old Japanese man received eradication of H. pylori using lansoprazole 60 mg/day, amoxicillin 1,500 mg/day, and clarithromycin 400 mg/day for 7 days. Serum immunoglobulin E increased to more than four times its pretreatment level, 306 → 485 → 1,325 U/ml, and peripheral eosinophil counts increased to more than three times, 99 → 139 → 298 per μl. Deducing from the current case, H. pylori eradication might develop allergic disorders in some patients.
Despite the initial drug cost for triple therapy being 650 Swedish kronor (SEK; 1996 values) higher, the average total direct cost in this group was only SEK150 to SEK200 higher than in the dual therapy groups. This was a result of fewer outpatient visits and lower drug use after treatment failure in the triple therapy group. Triple therapy had a more favourable cost-effectiveness ratio than the dual therapies.
Eradication was confirmed with (13)C-urea breath test 4-8 wk after therapy. Compliance with therapy was determined from the interview and the recovery of empty envelopes of medications. Incidence of adverse effects was evaluated by means of a specific questionnaire.
(1) The 1998 edition of the Drug Interactions section of the French data sheet compendium (Dictionnaire Vidal) includes welcome updates. (2) Increasingly numerous interactions involve tramadol, clarithromycin, oral anticoagulants, antiepileptics, theophylline and various psychotropic agents. (3) An entire section is now devoted to the numerous potassium-raising drugs.
Four separate laboratories performed antimicrobial susceptibility tests with 40 Haemophilus influenzae isolates, each tested in triplicate. Erythromycin and a new macrolide, clarithromycin (A-56268; TE-031), were tested by the disk diffusion method, by the agar dilution procedure in two different media, and by broth microdilution tests in four different media. Erythromycin MICs for 90% of the strains were 16 micrograms/ml in Mueller-Hinton broth with 3% lysed horse blood and NAD, 4.0 micrograms/ml in hemophilus test medium, and 2.0 micrograms/ml in supplemented Schaedler broth or in the fastidious broth medium from Beckman Instruments, Inc. Clarithromycin MICs were generally 1 doubling dilution greater than erythromycin MICs in each of the media. Erythromycin disk tests corresponded best with MICs determined in the fastidious broth medium. In that same medium, clarithromycin MICs were about 1 doubling dilution greater than what would be expected from the results of disk tests. Because there were fewer growth failures, hemophilus test medium is recommended for microdilution tests with H. influenzae. Incubation of all tests for a full 24 h without an increased CO2 atmosphere was needed to achieve maximal precision of the tests. Interlaboratory and intralaboratory reproducibility of all tests was satisfactory.
Consecutive consenting patients aged 18 years or more presenting for gastroscopy from 1 July 1998 to 30 June 1999.
To assess the pharmacokinetics of itraconazole and hydroxy-itraconazole in patients with cystic fibrosis.
Macrolides have been linked to the occurrence of congenital heart defects, but findings are inconsistent. We therefore aimed to estimate the risk of major congenital malformations (MCMs) after fetal exposure to macrolides, focusing on cardiac malformations.
Many drugs used for prophylaxis against opportunistic infections in AIDS also have activity against common bacteria. This study was performed to delineate relationships between prior use of antimicrobials and Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.
While additional evidence is needed to confirm that ST is more effective for Arctic Aboriginal communities than the Canadian standard H pylori treatment, these results show standard PPI-CA treatment to be inadequate for communities such as Aklavik.
One hundred ninety-four H. pylori positive children were randomized in two groups. Therapy (omeprazole+clarithromycin+amoxicillin or omeprazole+clarithromycin+metronidazole in case of penicillin allergy) was given to both groups during two weeks. In the treatment group (n: 102) S. boulardii was added to the triple therapy, while the control group (n: 92) only received triple therapy. The incidence, onset, duration and severity of diarrhea and compliance to the eradication treatment were compared. A (13)C urea breath test was done 4 weeks after the end of eradication therapy in two groups of 21 patients aged 12 years and older to test the H. pylori eradication rate.