High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Antidepressants: psychiatrists' opinions and clinical practice.


Injuries to the trigeminal nerve are a common postoperative complication of dental implant surgery. Usually, the altered sensation and neuropathic pain caused by the nerve injury is temporary, but a permanent neurosensory disorder can sometimes occur. Surgery is commonly used to treat this condition, but the treatment is associated with some complications and a relatively low success rate. This study analyzed the characteristics of pharmacologic management of trigeminal nerve injury pain after dental implant surgery.

The present findings indicate that genetic deletion or pharmacological blockade of TRPA1 produces inhibitory activity in mouse models of anxiety and depression. These results imply that TRPA1 exerts tonic control, promoting anxiety and depression, and that TRPA1 antagonism has potential as an innovative strategy for the treatment of anxiety and mood disorders.

Despite a lower likelihood of recovery in elderly people receiving augmentation, the recovery by over one-half of such patients suggests the value of augmentation for those able to tolerate it. Need for augmentation presages slower recovery in patients showing initial inadequate response; those requiring it after early relapse recovered more quickly. Strategies to further improve the likelihood and speed of recovery after initial treatment failure are needed.

We included six RCTs with a total of 216 participants. Five of the six trials compared desipramine with placebo; the remaining trial compared nortriptyline with placebo. One trial compared desipramine with clonidine and placebo, and another compared two TCAs (desipramine and clomipramine) with methylphenidate and placebo. Of the six trials, one RCT primarily assessed the efficacy of TCA in children with ADHD and comorbid tic or Tourette disorder, and another one trial was in children with comorbid tic disorder. RCTs that met our inclusion criteria varied both in design and quality, and none were free of bias. The quality of the evidence was low to very low according to our GRADE assessments.TCA outperformed placebo regarding the proportions of patients achieving a predefined improvement of core ADHD symptom severity (OR 18.50, 95% CI 6.29 to 54.39, 3 trials, 125 participants, low quality evidence). In particular, there was evidence that desipramine improved the core symptoms of ADHD in children and adolescents as assessed by parents (SMD -1.42, 95% CI -1.99 to -0.85, 2 trials, 99 participants, low quality evidence), teachers (SMD -0.97, 95% CI -1.66 to -0.28, 2 trials, 89 participants, low quality evidence), and clinicians (OR 26.41, 95% CI 7.41 to 94.18, 2 trials, 103 participants, low quality evidence). Nortriptryline was also efficacious in improving the core symptoms of ADHD in children and adolescents as assessed by clinicians (OR 7.88, 95% CI 1.10 to 56.12). Desipramine and placebo were similar on "all-cause treatment discontinuation" (RD -0.10, 95% CI -0.25 to 0.04, 3 trials, 134 participants, very low quality evidence). Desipramine appeared more efficacious than clonidine in reducing ADHD symptoms as rated by parents (SMD -0.90, 95% CI -1.40 to -0.40, 1 trial, 68 participants, very low quality evidence) in participants with ADHD and comorbid tics or Tourette syndrome.Although this Cochrane Review did not identify serious adverse effects in patients taking TCAs, it did identify mild increases in diastolic blood pressure and pulse rates. Also, patients treated with desipramine had significantly higher rates of appetite suppression compared to placebo whilst nortriptyline resulted in weight gain. Other reported adverse effects included headache, confusion, sedation, tiredness, blurred vision, diaphoresis, dry mouth, abdominal discomfort, constipation, and urinary retention.

Intravenous laser and PLLL therapy had a positive effect on pain severity and PDI reduction, and quality of life in this study. Also no adverse event was recorded. Thus, intravenous lasers and PLLL therapy seem to be effective complementary modalities in managing patients with shoulder MPS.

Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channels play a critical role in cardiac action potential repolarization. The unintended block of hERG channels by compounds can prolong the cardiac action potential duration and induce arrhythmia. Several compounds not only block hERG channels but also enhance channel activation after the application of a depolarizing voltage step. This is referred to as facilitation. In this study, we tried to extract the property of compounds that induce hERG channel facilitation. We first examined the facilitation effects of structurally diverse hERG channel blockers in Xenopus oocytes. Ten of 13 assayed compounds allowed facilitation, suggesting that it is an effect common to most hERG channel blockers. We constructed a pharmacophore model for hERG channel facilitation. The model consisted of one positively ionizable feature and three hydrophobic features. Verification experiments suggest that the model well describes the structure-activity relationship for facilitation. Comparison of the pharmacophore for facilitation with that for hERG channel block showed that the spatial arrangement of features is clearly different. It is therefore conceivable that two different interactions of a compound with hERG channels exert two pharmacological effects, block and facilitation.