Anatomically-specific actions of oestrogen receptor in the developing female rat brain: effects of oestradiol and selective oestrogen receptor modulators on progestin receptor expression.
In our multicentre trial, we randomly assigned 36 children to zidovudine and lamivudine, 45 to zidovudine and abacavir, and 47 to lamivudine and abacavir. Children who were symptom-free (n=55) were also randomly assigned to receive nelfinavir or placebo. Children with more advanced disease received open-label nelfinavir (73). Primary endpoints were change in plasma HIV-1 RNA at 24 and 48 weeks for the NRTI comparison and occurrence of serious adverse events for both randomised comparisons. Analyses were by intention to treat.
Antiretroviral activity was assessed by changes in HIV RNA level and CD4 cell count from baseline. Data through 100 weeks were summarized.
The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of zidovudine and alpha-interferon was determined for HIV-1 isolates recovered from each patient. Plasma concentrations of HIV-1 p24 antigen in the nine patients in the clinical trial were measured monthly after alpha-interferon was added to zidovudine monotherapy.
It appears that pregnancy itself is not adversely affected by HIV infection, but the course of HIV infection in the mother may be accelerated by pregnancy. The results of the 076 trial have changed our approach to AIDS in pregnancy. Heretofore AZT was only given for maternal indications such as severe immunodeficiency (CD4 count less than 200). We now recommend that AZT be given to all women with HIV infection and to infants postpartum. As to mode of delivery, Cesarean section may be beneficial, but we await further studies. We strongly encourage all pregnant women to have HIV testing regardless of risk factors. The HIV epidemic is here, in North Carolina. It is our responsibility as doctors to help pregnant women as best we can with their disease.
Although antiviral nucleoside analog therapy successfully delays progression of HIV infection to AIDS, these drugs cause unwelcome side-effects by inducing mitochondrial toxicity. We and others have demonstrated that the mitochondrial polymerase, DNA polymerase gamma (pol gamma), participates in mitochondrial toxicity by incorporating these chain-terminating antiviral nucleotide analogs into DNA. Here, we explore the role of three highly conserved amino acid residues in the active site of human pol gamma that modulate selection of nucleotide analogs as substrates for incorporation. Sequence alignments, crystal structures and mutagenesis studies of family A DNA polymerases led us to change Tyr951 and Tyr955 in polymerase motif B to Phe and Ala, and Glu895 in polymerase motif A was changed to Ala. The mutant polymerases were tested for their ability to incorporate natural nucleotides and the five antiviral nucleoside analogs currently approved for antiviral therapy: AZT, ddC, D4T, 3TC and carbovir. Steady-state kinetic analysis of the pol gamma derivatives with the normal and antiviral nucleotides demonstrated that Tyr951 is largely responsible for the ability of pol gamma to incorporate dideoxynucleotides and D4T-MP. Mutation of Tyr951 to Phe renders the enzyme resistant to dideoxynucleotides and D4T-TP without compromising the activity of the polymerase. Alteration of Glu895 and Tyr955 to Ala had the largest effect on overall polymerase activity with normal nucleotides, producing dramatic increases in K(m(dNTP)) and large decreases in k(cat). Mutation of Tyr955 in pol gamma causes the degenerative disease progressive external ophthalmoplegia in humans, and we show that this residue partially accounts for the ability of pol gamma to incorporate D4T-MP and carbovir. Alteration of Glu895 to Ala slightly increased discrimination against dideoxynucleotides and D4T-TP. The mechanisms by which pol gamma selects certain nucleotide analogs are discussed.
A methodology has been developed for the analysis of the intracellular metabolism of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) amino acid phosphoramidates utilizing reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography interfaced with negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI(-) -MS). The presented work demonstrates the potential of capillary LC/MS and LC/MS/MS to identify and quantitate the cellular uptake and metabolism of nucleoside phosphoramidate. Significant intracellular amounts of D- and L-phenylalanine methyl ester or D- and L-tryptophan methyl ester AZT phosphoramidates were observed for human T-lymphoblastoid leukemia (CEM) cells incubated for 2 and 4 h with the prodrugs. AZT-MP was the primary metabolite observed for human T-lymphoblastoid leukemia (CEM) cells. In this paper, the details of using LC/MS to analyze AZT amino acid phosphoramidates in biological samples are discussed. LC/MS is an efficient method for analyzing multiple samples containing several analytes in a short period of time. The method also provides high selectivity and sensitivity, and requires minimal sample preparation. This approach should be broadly applicable for the analysis of the intracellular metabolism of nucleoside prodrugs and pronucleotides.
To evaluate growth parameters assessed by weight and length in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected infants born to HIV-infected mothers in South Africa from birth to 6 months of age.