High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Adaptive auto-regulation of androgen receptor provides a paradigm shifting rationale for bipolar androgen therapy (BAT) for castrate resistant human prostate cancer.


Information was selected from a MEDLINE search (July 2000-October 2001) of English-language medical literature using ziprasidone as the search term. Manual searches of pertinent journal article references, request for medical information from Pfizer, and access of the Web site of the Food and Drug Administration were also performed.

Valproic acid or valproate (VA) is an anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing drug primarily used in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. Ziprasidone (ZPN) is an atypical antipsychotic drug used mainly for the treatment of schizophrenia.

At all time points, we demonstrated a decrease in prescriptions by all prescribers for olanzapine (P < .0001). One year after time 1, we found an increase in prescriptions by all prescribers for aripiprazole (P < .0001). No statistically significant increases in clozapine prescribing were observed. Also, a small but statistically significant increase was seen in prescriptions of perphenazine (P < .02 at time 3). However, this increase occurred only for prescriptions written by psychiatrists and not other prescribers.

At week 24, symptomatic point remission based on the above two more stringent criteria was achieved by 48.0 and 24.4% of the ziprasidone group versus 36.9 and 18.0% of placebo recipients, respectively (p = 0.04 and 0.14). Sustained remission rates at 24 weeks were 42.5 and 18.1% for ziprasidone, respectively (vs 33.3 and 14.4% for placebo, p = 0.04 and 0.21, respectively).

In this limited sample, ziprasidone (5-40 mg/day) appears to be effective and well tolerated in the treatment of Tourette's syndrome. Ziprasidone may be associated with a lower risk of extrapyramidal side effects in children. However, additional studies are necessary to evaluate more fully its safety and efficacy in children with tic disorders.

The present study is aimed at investigating possible predictors of response to ziprasidone in a sample of patients with mixed depressive state.

The atypical antipsychotics had mixed tolerability profiles in this mixed treatment comparison, with some agents having significantly greater tolerability than others depending on the outcome assessed.

An average of 0.62 million elderly received antipsychotic agents annually during the study period. A majority of the elderly using antipsychotic agents were female (70%), white (86%), non-Hispanic (95%), and living in metropolitan statistical areas (79%). Frequently reported diagnoses among the elderly taking antipsychotic agents were dementia (26.12%), anxiety (20.42%), and schizophrenia (6.62%). Of the elderly receiving antipsychotic agents, 50.39% received atypical agents and 51.88% received typical agents during the study period. The most frequently used atypical agents were risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that need (perceived mental health, p < 0.01) and enabling (time, p < 0.01) factors were significantly associated with atypical antipsychotic use after controlling for predisposing factors. The study found that elderly patients with relatively poor perception of mental health (need) and utilization of antipsychotic agents after 1998 (enabling) were more likely to involve the use of atypical agents.

Trajectory analysis of the entire sample identified that 18.9% of participants belonged to a group of responders. This figure increased to 31.5% for completers, and fell to 14.5% for dropouts. Olanzapine treated patients were significantly more likely than other treatment groups to belong to the trajectory of responders (n=69, 32.55%; Chi=20.13, df=2, p<.01). Separate trajectory analyses of each medication group showed that all medication groups showed two trajectories except olanzapine that had three trajectories and the only trajectory that attained a 20% PANSS reduction by endpoint.

Due to the association of second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) with weight gain and alterations of glucose and lipid homeostasis, we aimed to group six commonly prescribed SGAs into classes of differing risks.

The carbon-hydrogen bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) concept is evaluated as a potential computed indicator of stability of pharmaceutical drug substance candidates - specifically for oxidative stability of these molecules. Computational methods are discussed. Accuracy and validity of the methods are evaluated. BDEs are computed for several well-known molecules, for which stability and degradant identification information is known. Anecdotal correlations are noted between the lowest BDE energies of familiar molecules (sertraline, ezlopitant and related structures, ziprasidone, trovafloxacin, and varenicline), the sites of oxidative lability on these molecules and the identities of oxidative degradants. A low BDE may correlate in general with a reactive site on a molecule, not just an oxidatively susceptible one.

Patients with DSM-IV-defined schizophrenia (N = 1,460) were assigned to treatment with a first-generation antipsychotic (perphenazine) or one of 4 second-generation drugs (olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, or ziprasidone) and followed for up to 18 months (phase 1). Patients with tardive dyskinesia were excluded from the randomization that included perphenazine. Depression was assessed with the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). Mixed models were used to evaluate group differences during treatment with the initially assigned drug. An interaction analysis evaluated differences in drug response by whether patients had a baseline score on the CDSS of ≥ 6, indicative of a current major depressive episode (MDE).