High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

A UK panel consensus on the initiation of aripiprazole for the treatment of bipolar mania.


We conducted an integrated analysis of 12 phase II-III randomized, double-blind and/or open-label extension studies to evaluate short-term (12-26 weeks) efficacy and short- and longer-term (42-52 weeks) safety in men aged <75 years vs men aged ≥75 years. All men received once-daily tadalafil 5 mg or placebo. The efficacy outcome was International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Safety measurements included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), adverse events (AEs) leading to discontinuation, serious AEs (SAEs), and cardiovascular AEs. All analyses were intention-to-treat. Changes from baseline to efficacy endpoint and differences in changes between treatment groups were estimated as least-squares means using analysis of covariance models.

We searched the CCDANCTR (March 2003), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library issue 2, 2004), MEDLINE (1966 - June 2004), EMBASE (1980 - March 2004), CINAHL (1982 - March 2004), PsycINFO (1984 - March 2004) and the reference lists of articles. We also contacted pharmaceutical companies and experts in the field of sexology.

This was a spontaneous, open-label, randomized, multicenter, crossover study where the patients were randomized to receive sildenafil 50 mg, sildenafil 100 mg, tadalafil 20 mg, or vardenafil 20 mg.

Tadalafil improved lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH; LUTS/BPH) in clinical studies but has not been evaluated together with an active control in an international clinical study.

This study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42013005289.

Men over the age of 50 years with LUTS secondary to BPH and an International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) 8 or higher, were randomized to receive 10 mg alfuzosin (n = 25), 10 mg tadalafil (n = 25) or the combination of both the drugs (n = 25) once daily for 3 months. Symptoms were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks and 3 months. The primary endpoint was the change in IPSS from the baseline. Secondary endpoints were changes in IPSS storage and voiding subscores, peak urinary flow rate, residual urine volume, IPSS quality of life score and erectile domain score.

In the US methamphetamine is considered a first-line treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. It is also a common drug of abuse. Reports in patients and abusers suggest its use results in impotence. The efficacy of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE5i) to restore erectile function in these patient groups also has not been determined. In these studies, we determined if the rat is a suitable animal model for the physiological effects of methamphetamine on erectile function, and if a PDE5i (tadalafil) has an effect on erectile function following methamphetamine treatment. In acute phase studies, erectile function was measured in male Sprague-Dawley rats, before and after administration of 10 mg/kg methamphetamine i.p. Chronically treated animals received escalating doses of methamphetamine [2.5 mg/kg (1st week), 5 mg/kg (2nd week), and 10 mg/kg (3rd week)] i.p. daily for 3 weeks and erectile function compared with untreated controls. The effect of co-administration of tadalafil was also investigated in rats acutely and chronically treated with methamphetamine. Erectile function was determined by measuring the intracorporal pressure/blood pressure ratio (ICP/BP) following cavernous nerve stimulation. In both acute and chronic phase studies, we observed a significant increase in the rates of spontaneous erections after methamphetamine administration. In addition, following stimulation of the cavernous nerve at 4 and 6 mA, there was a significant decrease in the ICP/BP ratio (approximately 50%), indicative of impaired erectile function. Tadalafil treatment reversed this effect. In chronically treated animals, the ICP/BP ratio following 4 and 6 mA stimulation decreased by approximately 50% compared with untreated animals and erectile dysfunction (ED) was also reversed by tadalafil. Overall, our data suggest that the rat is a suitable animal model to study the physiological effect of methamphetamine on erectile function. Our work also provides a rationale for treating patients that report ED associated with therapeutics-containing methamphetamine or amphetamine with PDE5i.

The purpose of the present work was to verify if tadalafil affects hepatic glucose output, one of the primary targets of cAMP, in the isolated perfused rat liver. No effects on glycogen catabolism and oxygen uptake were found under basal conditions for tadalafil concentrations in the range between 0.25 and 10 μM. However, tadalafil had a clear and time-dependent inhibitory effect on the cAMP- and glucagon-stimulated glucose release. Constant infusion of tadalafil in the range between 0.25 and 10 μM eventually abolished 100% of the stimulatory action of those effectors. The tadalafil concentrations producing half-maximal rates of inhibition of the cAMP and glucagon stimulated glycogenolysis were 0.46±0.04 and 1.07±0.16 μM, respectively. These concentrations are close to the plasma peak concentrations in patients after ingestion of 20 mg tadalafil. The drug also diminished the activity of glycogen phosphorylase a and increased the activities of glucose 6-phosphatase, glucokinase, pyruvate kinase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. These actions occurred only in the cellular environment. Tadalafil did not affect binding of cAMP to protein kinase A. Diminution of cAMP-stimulated glucose output is the opposite of what can be expected from a phosphodiesterase inhibition, the most common effect attributed to tadalafil. Diminution of glucose output by tadalafil can be attributed (a) to an interference with glycogen phosphorylase stimulation and (b) to an increased futile cycling of glucose 6-phosphate and glucose with a concomitant increased flow of hexose units into cellular metabolic pathways. The effects described in the present work may prove to represent important side effects of tadalafil.